"क्या वह अंडे खाता है?"
Translation:Does he eat eggs?
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The anusvar here made me think up this question: Let's pretend we have a similar word to anda here, except the first vowel is such that you couldn't put a chandrabindu over it if you wanted to nasalize it, only a bindu. How, then, would we know if what we have is a bindu or an anusvar, since both are just a dot above the vowel?
Great question. As far as I can tell, the answer is that you don't know whether the dot stands for the anusvaar or the anunaasik in such a word just by looking at it.
For example, in the word खींचना (to pull), the dot stands for the anunaasik (vowel nasalization) but the bindu is used because there is no space for the chandrabindu above the line. However, a lot of people pronounce the word as if it has an anusvaar (by inserting a nasal consonant).
I'm racking my brain but I'm unable to recollect any word pairs like हंस (swan)/हँस (laugh), where one uses the anusvaar and another uses the anunaasik, but with no space over the line to put a chandrabindu.
Also, the confusion is not present in all words. For example, almost all bindus at the end of words in Hindi represent anunaasiks (eg: नहीं). There are etymological considerations as well. Anunaasiks are not as common in Sanskrit so if a tatsam word (words picked from Sanskrit into Hindi without undergoing morphological changes) has a Bindu, it is likely a anusvaar.
I wouldn't call it memorization exactly. You can pick up on these little quirks with pronunciation as you get exposed to the language more and more.