The anusvar here made me think up this question: Let's pretend we have a similar word to anda here, except the first vowel is such that you couldn't put a chandrabindu over it if you wanted to nasalize it, only a bindu. How, then, would we know if what we have is a bindu or an anusvar, since both are just a dot above the vowel?
Great question. As far as I can tell, the answer is that you don't know whether the dot stands for the anusvaar or the anunaasik in such a word just by looking at it.
For example, in the word खींचना (to pull), the dot stands for the anunaasik (vowel nasalization) but the bindu is used because there is no space for the chandrabindu above the line. However, a lot of people pronounce the word as if it has an anusvaar (by inserting a nasal consonant).
I'm racking my brain but I'm unable to recollect any word pairs like हंस (swan)/हँस (laugh), where one uses the anusvaar and another uses the anunaasik, but with no space over the line to put a chandrabindu.
Also, the confusion is not present in all words. For example, almost all bindus at the end of words in Hindi represent anunaasiks (eg: नहीं). There are etymological considerations as well. Anunaasiks are not as common in Sanskrit so if a tatsam word (words picked from Sanskrit into Hindi without undergoing morphological changes) has a Bindu, it is likely a anusvaar.
I wouldn't call it memorization exactly. You can pick up on these little quirks with pronunciation as you get exposed to the language more and more.
There's no difference, ji. khīnchna... This is one of those scenarios, again, where someone pretending Hindi-Urdu is Sanskrit will get all hung up on the rules of Devanagari script as Pandit Swamichandraramaishvar teaches. As I always say, look at "Urdu" (written in Perso-Arabic alphabet) and you'll see... Or, you can look at the Gurmukhi script, a sister script for writing Punjabi -- a sister language of Hindi. There's no such confusion over chandrabindus and bindus.
The bindu stands for N (or, if you want to get fancy, "homorganic nasal" -- meaning whatever version of N/M matches to the place of articulation of the following consonant). In all cases, you begin to "close" your cavity, but in the case of a consonant following, it results naturally in creating N/M sound.
Save the French "bon-bon" stuff for vowels dangling at the end of words.
Difference between moon-dot and dot is not a difference in sound, it's a difference in spelling rules only.
The verb agrees with the subject 'वह' which is singular.
In most cases, verbs agree with the gender and number of the subject. It is only in perfective tenses and the simple past tense that transitive verbs (verbs which can take direct objects) agree with the gender and number of their objects.
kya has two meanings.
- The question word, "what?" It appears before verbs, like "what is? what does?"
- No translation - but it marks a question, kind of like the symbol "?". Like Spanish has a ¿ (upside down question mark at the beginning of question-sentences), you can put "kya" before a statement to turn it into a question. "This is an apple" + KYA = "¿This is an apple?"/"Is this an apple?" [yeh seb hai. + KYA = kya yeh seb hai?]
You don't have to say KYA to make a yes/no question. You can just show with your tone of voice that they are asking a question! However... like the starting ¿ in Spanish... the "kya" warns you that a question is coming up :)
"Kyo" doesn't mean anything, lol.
"kyu~" means "why?", if that's what you were thinking.
EDIT: Oh, right, Hindi-walas say "kyon"... I was thinking Punjabi "kyun" ਕਿਉੰ, which I got so used to over the years and basically sounds the same as Hindi when you're chatting with people, ha.