A lot of Hindi speakers, including me, won't use बड़ा/छोटा in this case. बड़ा/छोटा would be used if we mean to say large or little.
For short and long books, we would use मोटी(fat) and पतली(thin).
यह किताब मोटी है - This is a long/thick book.
यह किताब पतली है - This is a short/thin book.