"यह किताब छोटी है।"
Translation:This book is short.
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Short is generally used regarding height and small is used if the thing or person (especially a child) is short in all . But in case of book , short is also used regarding the length of its contents.
For eg. The tree is short The seed is small/little .
If there is a mini book maybe created for joke , then you can use small.
In hindi chhota /chhote /chhoti is used for both small and short
Hope this helps.
A lot of Hindi speakers, including me, won't use बड़ा/छोटा in this case. बड़ा/छोटा would be used if we mean to say large or little.
For short and long books, we would use मोटी(fat) and पतली(thin).
यह किताब मोटी है - This is a long/thick book.
यह किताब पतली है - This is a short/thin book.