Hungarian Cases For Beginners
Szia! In case you were wondering, Hungarian has 18 cases oh my word. If you need them for anything they are here:
No ending Nominative
-ot / -at / -et / -őt / -t Accusative
-nak / -nek Dative [TO]
-val / -vel Instrumental Comitative [WITH]
-ért Causal Final [FOR]
-vá / -vé Translative [INTO]
-ig Terminative [AS FAR AS]
-ként Essive Formal [THE AMOUNT OF]
-ul / -ül Essive Modal [BY THE WAY OF]
-ban / -ben Inessive [IN]
-on / -en / -őn / -n Superessive [ON]
-nál / -nél Adessive [BY, AT]
-ba / -be Illative [INTO]
-ra / -re Sublative [ONTO]
-hoz / -hez / -höz Allative [TO]
-ból / -ből Elative [OUT OF, FROM]
-ról / -ről Delative [OFF, ABOUT, CONCERNING]
-tól / -től Ablative [AWAY FROM]
I have looked these up, and no I'm not an expert. If you want improvements just ask! Viszlát!
The real problems start when you try and remember which case goes with which verb meaning. Yep, not only do many verbs take unguessable cases, some take more than one and each case gives the verb a different meaning.
For "-ként" don't forget the "Tanárként dolgozom" - "I am working as a teacher"
You did a very good job! This way, you'll have an easier time to choose the correct suffix, because translating the prepositions often work.
-ként: it also means 'like/as sg.'
-ig: can also mean 'until' - until the end of the year = az év végéig
köszönöm szépen! fogok neked 4 lingulotók (sorry if i messed up a bit) thanks for the advice ill rly take it on board
Köszönöm a ligotokat!
If you don't mind another advice: using these suffixes will be easier if you put them into groups. For example, most of these suffixes can determine place but some of them can determine time, some of them (for example -ig) can be used for both, and some of these suffixes implies something else (like -val/-vel implies company or a tool).
I really hate this term, similar to "szép napot" (have a nice day). What can you use for well done, great job? Maybe "ügyes" will fit.
18 cases? Are you sure? Noone ever was able to give a certain number, because everyone counted in his own way.
After all the Hungarians themselves only use the "casus"-term - they say "eset" - only for the Accusative (tárgyeset ) and the Dative (részeshatározó eset).
All the other listed "cases" you will find in Hungarian grammer books as "határozók". It means something like an adverbial component. The hungarian word "határozószó" has the meaning of adverb.
im preety sure Hungarian has 18. but as i get better i think -m, -d, -ja, -juk, -ját and -unk are cases for my, his, her etc.
Well, if you want to name every suffix as a case, than this is called possessive case. But in Hungarian grammar these are called "birtokos személyjel" = personal property signs. And you can go further and include also the postpositions (mellett, alatt, előtt etc.) because their behaviour is the same. The number of 18 would be definetly too small ;-)