"Torg does not understand Mara."
Translation:mara yajbe' torgh.
Like English, with third person (not you and not me) subjects and objects their role in the sentence is indicated completely by position. The subject is the one doing the action and the object is the one that the action is being done to. In English, the subject comes before the verb, so when we say, "Torg does not understand," then "Torg" is the subject. And what is it that he doesn't understand? "Mara" is the thing he doesn't understand, so she is the object.
The difference in Klingon is that the positions of these elements are reversed from the English word order. In Klingon, you state the object first (the one the action is being done to), then the verb, then the subject (the one doing the action).
Not all parts of a Klingon sentence are reversed from English, but many are. Please don't get in the habit of reading the sentences in reverse. It takes a while for the English speaking brain to get used to the different word order and reading the sentences in reverse just makes it harder and makes it take longer.
Many important details like this are covered in the Tips. However, Duolingo has hidden the Tips, so I want to make sure you know about them and where to find them. If you have not been reading the Tips, I would like to ask that you review those.
If you are doing the course on iOS or Android, you cannot currently access the Tips through the app. To access the Tips, you will have to access the course using a web browser at https://www.duolingo.com/. You can still do it on your mobile device, but you will have to use the web browser instead of the app (or you can do it from a computer). When you click on a Skill, it will expand to reveal a Start button and a Tips button.
If you click on the Tips button it will reveal the Tips and give you a detailed explanation of the grammar that is introduced in that Skill. If you have questions after reading the Tips for any Skills, we are happy to answer your questions, but many of your questions will probably already be answered in the Tips.
The prefix Da- is only used when the subject is you (singular) and the object is he/she/it/them. Dayaj would mean you understand he, she, or it. In this case, the subject is he and the object is she so you would use the null prefix (no prefix).
The prefixes are a little hard at first but I promise, you get used to them.
Edit: As mizinamo said below, where ever I said an object was he or she above please replace it with him or her instead. So it should read like this:
The prefix Da- is only used when the subject is you (singular) and the object is him/her/it/them. Dayaj would mean you understand him/her/it/them. In this case, the subject is he and the object is her so you would use the null prefix (no prefix).
You are right. Sorry. I forget to think about the objects as him/her/it instead of he/she/it when thinking in klingon. It doesn't come up when doing the English sentences out of habit but when thinking about the Klingon, I consistently forget to write chart headings and such with the right case. I think it is because the pronouns don't change by case in Klingon.
It is certainly a way to translate the sentence and keep the elements in the same order. However, this doesn't work for all situations and so cannot be a consistent aid. What if we are not saying who or what Torg does not understand? yajbe' torgh is a fine Klingon sentence that can be interpreted, in the right circumstances as, "Torg does not undertand." But this is one that you can't use the passive sentence trick on.