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[GUIDE] Formatting Your Post

Formatting in Duolingo - Cheat Sheet
iGuide [GUIDE] Duo emoji ; [GUIDE] Links - all languages ; [GUIDE] WIU


  • Italic text:
    *Italic* gives Italic
    _Italic_ gives Italic
  • Bold text:
    **bold** gives bold
  • Bold & Italic text:
    ***bold & italic*** gives bold & italic
  • Strike through text
    ~~Strikethrough~~ gives Strikethrough
  • Highlight text
    `highlight text` gives highlight text
    To highlight : use the "back tick" key. Often on the top left corner of a keyboard. On the key that also has the tilde ~ . To the left of the 1(one) key. This is NOT the apostrophe/accent grave key ( ' ). This is the "back tick" key as displayed below :
    i.e. keyboard showing backtick key The alt code for ` is 96.

Put a "backtick" around your text to highlight : `highlight`

For more information on the "backtick" key, for now please refer to: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738?comment_id=28284779

click here to see the Condensed guide to Formatting Check it OUT !

for more detailed explanations about other formatting options:

  • https://duolingo.wikia.com/wiki/Formatting : is a great resource for all sorts of additional Duolingo information, including formatting.
  • You can look up more markdown https://guides.github.com/pdfs/markdown-cheatsheet-online.pdf . Note: quite a lot of the commands mentioned in this github reference do not work in the markdown used for Duolingo forums.
  • Also - don't forget to check out the Related Discussions.
    You will see them to the right of this discussion, or underneath . Note: If you have scripts running this often "knocks out" this additional information. ;P


  • This is based on the excellent works of hyllning's posts, that you can view here:
    https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/13978562 This is an update to the information that Hyllning covered, as we now have new features available for formatting.
  • and also from knowledge from the ever amazing Jrikhal ιροp usagip iGuide iGuidef iGuideFormatting iguideMarkdown last updated 22 Nov 2020

Previous header : [GUIDE] Forum Thread/Post Formatting

August 2, 2018



Embedded list

  • item 1
    • subitem 1
    • subitem 2
      • subsubitem 1
        • subsubsubitem 1
        • subsubsubitem 2
          • subsubsubsubitem 1
          • subsubsubsubitem 2
          • subsubsubsubitem 3
            • subsubsubsubsubitem 1
          • subsubsubsubitem 1
    • subitem 1
  • item 2
    • subitem 1
      • subsubitem 1
    • subitem 2
    • subitem 3
  • item 3
  • item 4

How to do this:

  • Start the first item with a - or a * followed by a space, then type your first item
  • Sub-items must start with FOUR spaces then - or a * followed by a space, then type your first sub-item
  • Sub-sub-items must start with EIGHT spaces then - or a * followed by a space then type your first sub-sub-item
  • Sub-sub-sub-items must start with TWELVE spaces then - or a * followed by a space, then type your first sub-sub-sub-item and so on.

Example code

Index of "[bracket codes]" used in explanation.

[ 4] : 4 blank spaces
[ . 8 .] : 8 blank spaces
[ . .12 . ] : 12 blank spaces
[ . . . 16 . . ] : 16 blank spaces
[ . . . . 20 . . . ] : 20 blank spaces


- item 1
[ 4]- subitem 1
[ 4]- subitem 2
[ . 8 .]- subsubitem 1
[ . .12 . ]- subsubsubitem 1
[ . .12 . ]- subsubsubitem 2
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 1
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 2
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 3
[ . . . . 20 . . . ]- subsubsubsubsubitem 1
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 1
[ 4]- subitem 1
- item 2
[ 4]- subitem 1
[ . 8 .]- subsubitem 1
[ 4]- subitem 2
[ 4]- subitem 3
- item 3
- item 4

ps. also check out the sub discussion here on "Quotes" nested quoting This is a different style that may also be appropriate for some authors.

return to top


With *:

  • test

    • test

      • test

With -:

  • test

    • test

      • test

I think * and - are interchangeable.


ohhh - thank you for this update, and contributing to our shared knowledge :D

NOTE: the post above has been edited, due to this information shared by TheNecromancer10


Dr. Lin daKanga, can I add you to the next episode of "Duo the owl" fun series which I've been animating?

I decided to recognize most of Duolingo Global Ambassadors, so I added Lrtward to Episode 6: Duo's French cousin, where Lrtward and Proswald teleported Duo to France immediately.

I added Little_Tatws and Atervanda to Episode 7: Enchanted Forest. They gave Duo a number of amazing powers: protection and the ability to understand the animals.

I hope that you'll also agree Dr. Lin daKanga. You'll be surprised when you watch the episode :)


Saydobid_Xusanov, how often do you make an episode?

  • hi test
    • hit test 2
      • hi test 3


testing testing testing testing


testing testing testing testing testing


  • Item 1
    • Item 1.1
    • Item 1.2
      • Item 1.2.a.
      • Item 1.2.b.
    • Item 1.3
  • Item 2


Testing Testing Testing Testing Testing

Is there a way to underline text?

  • Item 1
    • Item 1.1
    • Item 1.2
      • Item 1.2.a.
      • Item 1.2.b.
    • Item 1.3
    • Item 1.4
      • Item 1.4.a.
    • Item 1.5
  • Item 2

[deactivated user]
    • item * item *item


    What's this do ~~ hello~~

    [deactivated user]

      'highlight' - drat, didn't work...

      [deactivated user]

        hightlight Oohhh! By George, I think I've got it!


        i think you have :)


        this is fun :-)


        daKanga, you're quite the magician!

        [deactivated user]


          all of this works


          Love your font ... how do you make the magic happen?


          lisa, this is monospace formatted as bold italic. The monospace¹ font is created by enclosing the text within backticks (`), then enclosing all this within three asterisks to make the monospace font bold and italic.

          Like this:
          ***`this is monospace formatted as bold italic`***

          **`this is monospace formatted as bold`**

          *`this is monospace formatted as italics`*

          `this is monospace`

          Make sure you don't use the apostrophe (') instead of the backtick (`). And also make sure you begin and end with the three asterisks (creating bold italics) with the monospace words embedded within them.

          ¹ Monospace has the effect of yellow highlighting too.

          1. item 1               Nested unordered/bulleted lists
            1. subitem 1             end each nested list with an extra
            2. subitem 2             <line break> (cf. daKanga's above
              1. subsubitem 1          post) – and none of testmoogle's
                1. subsubsubitem 1        taming is able to compensate.
                2. subsubsubitem 2        
                  1. subsubsubsubitem 1    Oddly, nested ordered/numbered
                  2. subsubsubsubitem 2    lists are well behaved in this
                  3. subsubsubsubitem 3    respect (as here on the left).
                    1. subsubsubsubsubitem 1
                  4. subsubsubsubitem 4
            3. subitem 3
          2. item 2
            1. subitem 1
              1. subsubitem 1
            2. subitem 2
            3. subitem 3
          3. item 3
          4. item 4             ··· ↻ [24 Dec 2019 09:58 UTC]


          Sadly, I don't think there'll be any workarounds for this one.

          Duo has the following style rules set in their CSS for all posts and comments:

          ​ • ​ OL (ordered/numbered lists)
           ​ • ​ margin-left = 20 px
           ​ • ​ margin-right = 0 px
           ​ • ​ margin-top = 0 px
           ​ • ​ margin-bottom = 0 px
          ​ • ​ UL (unordered/bulleted lists)
           ​ • ​ margin-left = 20 px
           ​ • ​ margin-right = 0 px
           ​ • ​ margin-top = 0 px
           ​ • ​ margin-bottom = 20 px

          So there will always be a 20 pixel margin underneath every unordered/bulleted list, even if it's nested, unfortunately.

          Instead of just the two rules Duo currently has (OL and UL), they could add the following two rules: LI > OL and LI > UL. These two rules would override when the list is nested, which would allow a different style to be specified for nested lists vs non-nested lists. ^^

          To me, it seems like both OL and UL should have 20 px bottom margin as the default (not only UL), and also both should have 0 px bottom margin when nested (not only OL).

          • Check
            • Check
              • Check
                • Check
                  • Check
                    • Check
                  • Check
                • Check
              • Check
            • Check
          • Check

          EDIT: I just noticed that it doesn't work above 16. For example, 20 spaces doesn't work: Example:

          <pre> - Check </pre>



          How do I add a link to a specific word? E.g. "Click on this to learn more", where this represents the link.


          And also to add, the writing you see above is the internet address, such as you would see in the action bar in the top of your web browser.
          i.e the writing https://duolingo.fandom.com/wiki/Community_and_discussions_guide

          While the writing that appears between the square brackets [ ]is the text that appears, and is in the blue color. And when your post is rendered in the forums, when you click on that word or phrase, it will take you to the address you have specified in brackets ( )


          test (You needed to use spacing between the brackets and contents)


          NOTE: Hiding a URL behind alternate text in a comment on a Sentence Discussion page is counter-productive for Duo's mobile-app users! Without displaying the URL, the link is not clickable within the mobile apps.
          If the URL is the display text, then at least it is clickable for Android-app users; and iPhone-app users can read and then type the URL. If the URL is not displayed, then the URL is totally inaccessible within the app.

          Thank you,
          b008 rich739183


          Yet another Duo App shortcoming—thanks for the warning!
          The App is excellent for learning 'in between' (the daily commute, longer journeys, boring meetings…) – but the full Duo experience is waiting on the home computer.

          Clickable in-text URLs, a very basic Forum skill taught early in daKanga's Formatting 'Course', shorten Comments that use longish links. So I'll not unlearn this just to assist the Duo App user subset who lack (laptop/PC) access to the full Duo website.

          However, a Sentence Discussion Comment's full readable URL can be displayed as a footer line (see below) for App users to click (Android) or type (iOS) into the phone's browser, where in-text links are visible and functional. In future I'll aim to add such footers as needed.

          NOTE: Duo redirects the footer's short old-style Forum URL (the shortest I could devise) to the full current URL

          Duo could instead add proper browser link access (a rather basic feature!) to the App, saving iOS users wasteful typing.

          This Comment's URL for App users duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=42271347
                  ··· ↻ [Sun 20 Sep 2020 21:30 UTC]


          There are other basic needs, too, that Duo management ignores, while they take $millions of funding to use for other purposes. Many people use Duo exclusively on mobile apps without Duo ever telling them that more features are on the Web. And all this while management brags about helping people around the world, including those who have only one device that might be a cell phone.

          b009 rich739183


          I stopped using the double space at the end of the line because it was not working in the Duo's app

          on website they are like this:


          but when I saw it on Duo's app they were like this:



          My post of August 1, 2020 was about any URL, not just that of one's own post, but the "footer" idea works equally well for any URL(s) to avoid interrupting the text flow of the comment.

          Another suggestion to help app users access a web page is to provide key words to search for that page. E.g., if I'm in the iPhone app on a forum page other than this one, reading a link to RobinB896941's comment here about a footer, I'd appreciate knowing the title of this page. I'd find it easier to access this page by typing that title into a search than by typing the URL.

          b108 rich739183

          [deactivated user]


            • item 1

              • subitem 1
              • subitem 2
            • Item 2

              • subitem 1
              • subitem 2


            This is so cool!

            [deactivated user]
              <pre>* Testing * Testing </pre>


              Hallo Daniel,
              Are you not aware that you can click the grey EDIT link below any of your 15 (mostly) 1-line posts, to:

              • Correct (or remove) tests that failed.
              • View code which already worked for you: you needn't re-test it in a series of new posts. If you don't want to change your code yet, just click the ( CANCEL ) button, and your old post is safe.
              • Edit the content of many of your posts into a single "sandbox" post for adding your future tests – maybe the very post to which I am replying (the first you wrote) – to keep all your good stuff in one place. Then you can DELETE redundant posts.
              • Cut down on Forum overheads: each Post, however long or short, has its own header and footer, which en masse increase page loading time.

              Thanks! – Robin          [12 Dec 2019 14:56 UTC]

              [deactivated user]

                Thanks, but I am aware of the "edit" button.


                Great! Could you please use it then? Because every single time you post a NEW comment every single person following this post gets an email about it! (Email settings allowing)

                In other words, Robin and I are asking you to be more considerate of others please. Thanks!



                There are two types of spacing that you can use between lines of text or images.

                Single Spacing

                Single Spacing is what you'd use to have text right underneath the previous line. Press the [Space Bar] twice, or have two spaces after your text, and then click [Enter]. That will result in no space between the two lines of text.
                Space + Space + Enter_key


                Test I
                Test II

                Double Spacing

                A very common way of spacing. And perfect for creating a new paragraph. Press the [Enter] key twice after a line of text / code.
                Enter_key + Enter_key


                Test I

                Test II

                return to top


                Wow, who knew this was a thing!


                let me try with the single spacing.


                i did it!


                how are you


                test. test.


                This. Wish I'd found it sooner.


                This is a GREAT resource ! Thank you YPSILONZ


                cool guide thanks!


                To show your embedded Code (and to highlight)

                Code-Block Text:
                This is useful, to show what coding you might have used in formatting your post.
                It means your code is not translated into an action. Instead it shows the code.
                Or when you want to highlight something in yellow :D
                i.e. `code` becomes code

                or you can use the backslash before you type your code.
                will show the code without highlighting it yellow.

                nb, this is using the grave accent key. When used in programming it is often referred to this as the back tick key. On many keyboards it shares its key with ~ , known as a tilde accent diacritic by many of us and is often located in the top left corner of a keyboard.

                The alt code for ` is 96.

                To show back tick ` key at the start of a line

                \ `
                i.e. [backslash '\'] + [backtick `]

                This gives you :

                The back tick ` is different to the standard use of apostrophe (‘). The apostrophe on most English keyboards is located two keys to the right of the "L" key.

                return to top


                How to start a line with the grave accent `

                i.e. ( backslash + grave accent ).

                This will give you:
                `test with backslash + backtick + text.
                `test with backslash + two backticks around text`

                \test with two backlashes + two backticks around text

                \`test with three backslashes + two backticks`

                the backslash will remove other special characters, such as [ ] ( )
                while the backtick will show the formatting code, including special characters.


                How do you find a page URL ? : Generaly

                1. Locate the page you want to find.
                2. In your browser’s address bar at the top of the page, click once to select the entire URL. Copy the URL by right-clicking it and then selecting Copy. Paste the URL by right-clicking it and then selecting Paste. ( or "Ctrl + C" )

                How do you get a published image URL ?

                1. Locate the image you want.
                2. Right-click the image. Depending on what system you’re using, select the image URL by clicking one of these:
                  • Chrome: Copy image address
                  • Safari: Copy image address
                  • Internet Explorer: Properties and then Copy the URL address shown
                  • Firefox: Copy image location

                Alternate reference (AltRef): https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/63758?hl=en

                (hold on to your horses ... more to come ;P )


                ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_animation

                return to top


                Please check out [Guide]Formatting:Jumping to comments within a post. , which is a far simpler way to do what is explained below.

                In short:
                To jump to a comment within a post :

                • click on the time stamp just below the post you want to link to.


                • This will reload your page, with the link information in the top of your browser, in the address bar.

                You can then link to this by code "like" this :
                [comment by Davey944676](https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/36508390?comment_id=36508559)

                ie. comment by Davey944676

                Complicated other way to find the URL to jump to within a post

                How do I find the URL of a Response Post to Discussion page in Duolingo?

                This is how to reference the URL in Duolingo of a Response Post to the original Header Post (HP) of a discussion. To locate the URL of HP, refer above to HOW DO YOU FIND A PAGE URL ?

                1. Locate the discussion (HP) Take a note of the HP URL address, say in a separate clip board/note pad. Or say on the header of new browser window. Whatever works best for you. It will look something like
                  where 888888 is the reference number of the HP.
                2. Locate the Response Post (RP) that you wish to reference.
                3. Move your mouse to click on the RP, to highlight a word in the post.

                  This is to help insure you are in the "current property" (correct location). Then,

                4. Select "Inspect element". Do this by right clicking on your mouse, to display a pop up window that at the bottom will display the option "inspect" Click on this option. ( or "Cntrl+Shift+i" )

                  Another panel will display to either the right or bottom of the window.

                5. Most likely, the "Elements" tab on the top will be selected.
                  Then there should be tab menu, that should include things such as :
                  html body #root div div div main div section div div div div div #999999.XXXXX ...
                  (ps. and yes as a heads up, in my google chrome - it is written in purple ;P ) It is the number, whatever the number is #999999 that you are needing to note.
                6. If you click on the tab #999999 it will also show you code in the inspection window above something like :
                  div class="XXXXX" id="999999" == $0

                You can click on with your mouse a couple of times on the "999999", and it should highlight JUST that number. You can then copy that number to your clip board. (ie. "Cntrl+C" ; or right mouse click, and on the pop up window select "copy")

                You are almost there

                You need to now make up your URL reference code. You have all the data.

                The code format you need to copy is:

                HOW DO YOU FIND A PAGE URL ?

                This still makes my eyes glaze over. I know I can do better.
                Feel free to post a better explanation. Including pictures is normally the way ;P

                return to top


                These links https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/888888$comment_id%3D999999 are not always working. Are there any solutions? I'm using Safari.


                The %3D part of the address is just a URL escape code for the equals sign. As far as I'm aware, there's no reason to type %3D instead of just typing =. It just makes it more confusing and more likely to delete the wrong bit by accident.

                • ID number for this discussion page is 28284738
                • ID number for your comment is 33369802


                If you paste that URL in a new tab, it should take you directly to that post?

                If the link is typed without any mistakes, the only guess I have as to why it might not work every time is maybe if the page has thousands of comments it takes a long time loading and ends up failing. Not sure if this does happen though.


                It should be


                On Chrome this link opens correctly. Maybe it's a Safari problem.


                Oops. Fixed. Thanks!

                Oh, right. I don't have a Mac so I can't test it in Safari.

                I tried a very out-of-date version of Safari on Windows 10 before (the final Windows version of Safari they made back in 2012...), but it didn't load many web pages correctly as it was so old. So there's probably no point me testing it in that. ^^;

                I take it you're on the latest version of Safari?


                Yes I have latest macOS.


                Get URLs of Page and Post         ·

                The entire procedure is done in seconds, but takes longer to describe.

                In Chromium (open-source Chrome variant for Linux derivatives) / Google Chrome (Windows and other proprietary OS):

                1. Point your browser to the post's page, and view the post's date stamp.
                  • New-style N TIME AGO: right-click copy the post's full URL from it, and jump to Step 5.
                  • Old-style n time ago (now rare): continue with Step 2.

                2. Copy the Page URL – the entire line in your browser's address bar, e.g.
                  – into your favourite notepad or editor. Within the Forums, however, you need just the final number (here: 28284738).
                  • If the page has a mere screenful of posts, the page URL alone might suffice: skip to Step 5 and omit the comment_id.
                3. But if there are many posts (my 'favourite' page has 400) you need the full Post URL with comment_id. Double left-click a word of the post's text (ideally at its top left to avoid later problems) to mark it, right-click your marking, and left-click Inspect.
                  Wait a few seconds for the Inspect window to display the post's code.

                4. Look for a ▸ line showing a blue number of the form id="35198615". Double right-click the number – the comment_id – to mark it, right-click your marking, and left-click Copy. Paste it into your favourite notepad or editor.
                  • If the blue number is off screen, click the dark grey number e.g. div#35198615… in the Inspect window's footer, and re-do Step 4.
                  • If the Inspect window fails, left-click its X (top right) to close it. Re-do 3.

                5. Post URL = Page URL + comment_id
                  This post's full URL (needed for a browser bookmark, or for e-mailing to friends) is thus
                  But DML accepts very short URLs for clickable links within the Forums:
                  Code:[Get URLs of Page & Post](28284738?comment_id=35198615)
                  Result:Get URLs of Page & Post

                Advanced (Inspect for experts)

                1. Left-clicking ▸ ▾ toggles code blocks between ▸ collapsed and ▾ expanded.
                2. If the mouse hovers over a comment_id (even if hidden under collapsed code) in the RH Inspect window, its matching post is highlighted in pale blue in the LH browser window.
                3. So to find the comment_ids of several posts in just one Inspect session:
                4. Scroll the LH window until the next post of interest appears.
                5. In the RH window, collapse most of the code by clicking a few ▾.
                  (Work from left to right: ▾ are nested, so clicking a far left ▾ may collapse several ▾ further to the right, too.)
                6. The code's mid section often collapses to a series of short identical lines; each in fact 'hides' a single post. To find the right code line, move the mouse slowly up and down the RH window (carefully scrolling as needed) until the post of interest is highlighted in pale blue in the LH window.
                7. Click that line's ▸ to expand the code and maybe reveal the id="21439876" line containing the relevant comment_id (21439876 here). If not, click a few ▸ in the expanded code until the comment_id line appears.


                1. "…the shoulders of a giant":
                  Maybe daKanga's 2-part explanation of 6 Aug 2018 works better for you:
                    Find Page URL
                    Find Post URL
                2. In my explanation, the current page (daKanga's [GUIDE] Formatting in Duo) is the example page where a post – the one you're reading right now! – needs a comment_id.
                3. Firefox's Inspect window (which opens up at lower screen) appears to resemble that of Chromium / Chrome. Others can test their browsers…
                4. Before 22 Oct 2019, Duo's Post URLs used $, not ?. My browser's address bar now instantly turns old-style Duo $ links into new-style ? ones, so both work. But to aid bookmarking, I'm gradually editing ? into my old links.
                5. The clickable [Robin](/RobinB896941) once linked to my user profile – but current DML breaks such links. The shortest good link is now
                6. To avoid repeat Inspects, I like to keep my posts' URLs in home-made timestamps (cf. lower RH corner of this post). My . after UTC in some timestamps reminds me to add a comment_id.

                ··[↻ · 22 Nov 2019; ed 18 Dec 09:46, 9 May 2020 15:18, 29 Sep 14:13 UTC]



                Used for organization and for listing items.


                • Text
                • Text
                • Text

                ( you can use instead a single * , or + , instead of the - )


                - Text
                - Text
                - Text

                and so on..

                nb: for lists, remember to leave a blank line above where you first commence your list.
                Otherwise your list will appear as:
                - Text - Text - Text


                For automatically numbered bullets, the first line must be pre-numbered. Type [1.] (and your text) for the first line, then every line after that, you'll only need to type [-] for it to number itself.

                1. Test 1

                2. Test 2

                3. Test 3


                1. Test 1

                - Test 2

                - Test 3

                and so on...

                - - point :

                  • point
                    note: two spaces between the two hyphens.
                    • point

                return to top


                Is there any way to control the paragraph breaks before and after a list? For instance:

                Here is a list:

                1. Stuff
                2. Other stuff
                3. More stuff

                This is something else.

                The problem is:

                • The 'Here is a list:' line and the list itself are supposed to be one paragraph, but there's a big blank paragraph-break line between them and I can't figure out how to make it go away
                • The 'This is something else.' line is supposed to be the start of a new paragraph, but no matter how many blank lines I add between the last list item and the text after it they always display as the same paragraph.

                1. A top-level list (each list item starts with 1., - or *) needs a preceding blank line, and usually a final blank line too.
                  • Untidy workaround: Write your introductory paragraph or your 'Here is a list:' line as - Here is a list: to turn it into a 1-item top-level 'list'.
                2. Lower-level lists (with 4, 8, 12, … spaces before 1., - or *) don't need preceding blank lines. (⇒ 1. Untidy workaround).

                3. Any unordered (bulleted) list, any level, ends with Duo's 'bonus' blank line. Ordered (numbered) lists don't do so.
                  my Q&A with Testmoogle.

                4. With effort (testmoogle is the expert on this!), most excess blank lines can be eliminated from the screen result:
                  1. As you write your list, include only 'compulsory' blank lines; non-essential blank lines unpredictably affect remote text sections later. Line formatting looks messy at this stage.
                  2. Avoid the (unreliable) double-space line ending to get a new line. Instead, use testmoogle's [br] ('line break').
                  3. [br][br] usually gives a blank line even within a list item (e.g. for a fake 'new paragraph').
                  4. Add or remove [br] elements as a final adjustment.
                  5. If that doesn't help, or if some list items are crazily numbered or at the wrong level, search for a missing essential blank line, or an extra non-essential one, somewhere in your list. Fix it and repeat Step 4.4.

                5. Certain formatting elements (e.g. Tables) break ordered-list numbering and add unwanted blank lines, though workarounds exist. Thus the nested numbered lists in one of my longer comments function correctly despite containing several Tables. Search there for English poem to see how it can be done.

                6. When all else fails, I sometimes use bullet • and white space special symbols to fake an unordered (bulleted) list.
                  List items longer than a line wrap badly, exposing the fake, and thus need extra [br] and white space to improve indentation.

                So your test list can be coded thus:

                - Here is a list:
                - Stuff
                - Other stuff
                 - More stuff

                This is something else.

                which posts as:

                • Here is a list:
                  • Stuff
                  • Other stuff
                  • More stuff

                This is something else.

                Forum example

                My long 'Open Letter' incorporates most of the methods described above.

                • Only after writing the text did I learn of the non-essential blank line issue, so Step 4.5 (above) took me quite some time…
                • The main text is a numbered top-level list, with a blank line between each of the 13 list items for clarity.
                • List item 0. is faked ;-)
                • Many of the 13 top-level items include lower-level lists.
                • The bulleted lower-level 'lists' 7.1 are faked (detectable in indentation and bullet size) to eliminate unwanted blank lines.


                The many comments (~370) on this [GUIDE] page already make it very slow to load. So if you'd like to test things:

                1. Please edit your experiments and responses into your original comment rather than creating a new one here. In return, I'll look in here from time to time to see how you're getting on, and update my own comment with extra material and amendments as needed.
                2. The very best test is, of course, to post a Comment in your native language on the Forum of the language you're learning (maybe why you asked about formatting here).
                3. Alternatively, experiment on Gh0stwheel's new, purpose-built Formatting: Testing ground page.
                                    [22 Nov 2020 10:22 UTC]


                Separator Lines:

                Used a lot for organization in Discussion posts.

                There are multiple codes for Separator Lines, [ - - - ] is one you can use. Just make sure to use it in its own line.




                and so on ...

                return to top

                <pre> Hello </pre>




                Very much



                THANK YOU!

                • Underline text
                  Markdown code does not provide a syntax for underlined characters. This may be as underlined is reserved for hyperlinks, though this is just a guess on my behalf.


                a̲b̲c̲d̲e̲f̲g̲h̲i̲j̲k̲l̲m̲n̲o̲p̲q̲r̲s̲t̲u̲v̲w̲x̲y̲z̲0̲1̲2̲3̲4̲5̲6̲7̲8̲9̲ A̲B̲C̲D̲E̲F̲G̲H̲I̲J̲K̲L̲M̲N̲O̲P̲Q̲R̲S̲T̲U̲V̲W̲X̲Y̲Z̲

                Possible external references to convert text to underline :

                return to top


                Header heading 5 does allow for underlining, but of course, it only works as a header, so one can't have underlined text and non-underlined text in the same line.

                #####Heading 5 at the beginning of a line produces

                Heading 5

                This does not work #####in the middle of a sentence

                Edit: Apparently header heading 5 uses underlining in Reddit (that's where I based my claim from) but not in Duolingo. I just tested all of the other headers (1 to 6) and none of them use underlining in Duolingo.

                Edit 2: Apparently it's called a "heading", not a "header".


                Thanks for testing the limits out.
                Yes - different platforms have different variations of Markdown.
                And yes, it is worth checking things out. Also things change over time. Which is also why I have posted this Format Guide, so that I can keep it up to date.
                For also the expression of Markdown in Duolingo I have experienced changes over time.
                And some of the older guides to Formatting do not reflect these changes, nor cover all the options that I like to be able to have access to.


                Thanks for mentioning the bit about "header" vs. "heading." I should have known the difference, but I, too, had been in the habit of using "header" when I really should have been using "heading." Thanks to you, I now know the difference. For anyone else who is still wondering, click on this:

                Rule 2: Don't confuse Headers and Headings


                Unfortunately that link 404s now.


                The difference between Header and Heading
                When used as nouns, header means the upper portion of a page (or other) layout, whereas heading means the title or topic of a document, article, chapter, or of a section thereof.


                Can you translate this to Spanish please?


                ok - I have started this work.
                You can see this here : https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/32411655

                Also - I will try to continue to simplify / create an improved simplification of the resources here also in English. Which will not just assist the quality of this post, but also enhance translations.

                It is also highly likely that I will be splitting this post up into separate posts, as this discussion is becoming cumbersome in its length and loading.

                Thank you for your patience as I do this, and I welcome also the valued input of the community. Though, I also reserve the right to make line ball calls based on my decisions. Yet will always support others creative and positive input and valuable critical comments that enhance improved creation of resources, including diversity of these resources (ie - different ways of also explaining things).



                Titles are often used at the beginning of Discussion posts and at the beginning of segments in posts.

                • ##Title No. I - 2 # keys:

                Title No. I - 2 # keys:

                • ###Title NO. II - 3#keys:

                Title NO. II - 3#keys:

                • ####Title No. III - 4#keys:

                Title No. III - 4#keys:

                • #####Title No. IV - 5#keys:
                Title No. IV - 5#keys:
                • ######Title NO. V - 6#keys:
                Title NO. V - 6#keys:

                return to top




                Q1: Selecteer de missende zin:

                • A: Hoe herken je
                • B: Hoe luister je naar
                • C: Hoe weet je

                • test

                • test








                Answer: B

                hallo h[color=#4C4C4C]o[/color]e gaat het?





                I am testing whether h3 is essentially h5 in all caps. The first line uses h3 and the second uses h5.

                I am testing.

                I AM TESTING.






                Super cool! I had no idea how to do this!thanks dkanga!


                Title No. I - 2 # keys:



                I can put [br] whitout perro caliente



                upvote  send hugs  delete

                abort configure CHANGE GENRE

                options set menu


                What about how to make non-clickable links? ^^


                You could make use of this in your guide, to prevent web addresses in your examples from being unwantedly automatically turned into clickable links.

                For example:



                ok so what is the "code" you have used between making a clickable link, or a non clickable link ?
                It is not clear to me with what you have posted above.


                It's more of a trick rather than there being any formatting code for this. I'm hoping people might have a go at figuring out how I did this themselves... Still, I'll leave the answer below anyway. ^^

                * spoiler *

                Or, a more risky version for perfectionists:


                ooooh - you are tricky testmoogle ;P


                Hehe. ^^

                Btw, I forgot to provide the answer to the other example I used – how to get it working inside your yellow highlighted text. To do this is a little trickier:



                I have just fallen in "roo" love with you testmoogle ;P
                As in you are BRILLIANT and INSPIRATIONAL !

                Thank you for this tip !

                : roo hurries away and makes some more notes, as a roo is likely to do, and wonders how they help themselves and others to use this extreme shared skill :

                Again THANK YOU !


                ## ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ##


                Now what untameable symbol did you use to generate your (red) lines, Badry21? In an editor it right-justifies not only itself, but also the lines above and below; and line breaks (and cursor movements) go in the wrong direction…
                      [18 Nov 2019 10:02 UTC]




                @RobinB896941 It is an Arabic Tatweel. That's why it right-aligns.


                Inspiration and Challenge to Improve learning.

                With this knowledge, you can set about creating fantastic resources to expand and share language learning opportunities.

                If you have the skills, and want to see more stories in your target language ( the language you are learning ), with supporting documentation in your source language ( the language you know/are fluent in ). Also this would be useful for creating grammar resources.

                then the formatting information here can assist with that.

                Also don't forget about the resource of tinycards , and also create unique resources there to complement you resources you create in Duolingo forums.

                And of course to utilize other free resources, and provide links to them. Such as:

                So in effect, using Duolingo forums as a way to publish your resources and make them available to others.
                And also to have the chance for your resources to be reviewed by others, and also have the chance to empower others, and also find out about other resources that may be of interest to you.


                Here's a lingot as a token of my appreciation.:O)


                How do you highlight a colored word/sentence?


                For better text width, here's a brief reply to all the questions you asked later. My full reply is in my wider SANDBOX 2.0 post.
                Click the post's link and with your browser's Search (often [Ctrl-F]) find the SUPERMAN'S SHIRT heading of my ideas (text only, no image-based cheats ;) ).
                           ··· ↻ [Sun 11 Apr 2020 11:49 UTC]


                Wow! Very interesting. So still can't get around making the colored text as a hyperlink I guess...interesting that you made the blue hyperlink tiles around the 'S'.

                Is it possible to make a shape that totally looks like the emblem (diamond-shaped)? All I can think of is that; make it like a hundred times bigger and assume one tile as a pixel, and make it like a pixel art LOL


                If you check out the top post, in mentions there how to highlight.

                ie. go here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738


                I've actually looked through them but still can't find. How do you bold, color and higlight at the same time? The nearest thing I could get is this:

                [color=red]**test**[/color] **[color=red]test[/color]** test

                Edit: and I want to add one more which is hyperlink to the word. Can I?


                The hyperlink will turn off the color since links have their own color. But you should be able to do the rest:

                This is colored red and bolded and highlighted


                Oh ok highlight should be inside the color code. Thank you deepstructure!

                Yeah I got like that when putting link too. I guess there's no workaround there

                I hope for it to be like this:


                You can put a link in by just doing the formatting to the first part of the sentence, then making the word you want a link, then formatting the rest of the sentence. But as you can see it does look funky since links have their own formatting that can't be altered (since that would defeat the point). 🤓


                Ya, you'd have to make a graphic of your text that looks like that and link that instead.


                I actually want to do something like a red 'S' with highlight (yellow ofc) and when you click on the 'S' it will bring you to a YouTube video of 'Man of Steel' explaining the meaning of 'S' on the Superman's emblem LOL

                So the red 'S' with the highlight will look like the Superman's emblem


                You could do something like this (should be clickable).

                superman s link


                I know how to do that (using image) but that would be cheating

                If I want to use an image, better put the image of the emblem directly LOL


                You're AWESOME, lindakanga! Thank you so much for this!

                [deactivated user]

                  I have been trying to format the link as a word like your first example, but I haven't been able to. I'm always forced to use the regular URL.

                  For example, Collins [retablir] becomes Collins [retablir][https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/french-english/rétablir] . (There is no space between the first closed bracket and the second open bracket.) Is there another way to do this?


                  The first part needs left and right brackets. [first part]

                  The second part needs left and right parenthesizes.

                  (second part).

                  Collins retablir

                  second part has in parenthesizes


                  [deactivated user]

                    Thanks! For some odd reason, the curve in the parentheses appears straight when it is next to a bracket. Must be an optical illusion for me

                    [deactivated user]

                      Excuse me, but how do you jump to comments inside posts (i.o.w., how do you find the comment ID?)?


                      Click/right-click the timestamp by the comment. (Hovering over the timestamp also gives you a tooltip with the exact date of the comment.)


                      Also, as a tip for when typing in comments under a discussion :

                      You can make the comments box larger by clicking/taping the bottom right hand corner of the box (where you're writing or editing your comment) and drag it downward to make it as big as you want.

                      ie. look for those two tiny diagonal lines in the corner.symbol:

                      p.s. you will also see this when entering/editing your header post.


                      Images: Stage 2

                      I want to post my own images

                      If you want to post an image you have created in a Duolingo Discussion, you need to host it somewhere.
                      You can check out `image hosting sites' to locate one, and many are free.
                      A common one I see used here is https://imgur.com

                      A simple way to show images in Discussions.

                      Use image links that have .png, .jpg, .gif, etc. in their URL. You cannot use images from your computer, you'll need a link to an image that is stored up on the WWW, ie you need to link to an image hosting site, to either a picture already on the image hosting site, or to create and save an image to the site.


                      • ![](URL of image)

                      Optional Text

                      • !["optional text/hover text"](URL of image)

                        Please consider always including "hover text", as this also is of assistance to people with vision impairment, or if their internet is slow, or the region/country they are in blocks the reference for the image.


                      • [!["optional text"](URL of image)](URL redirect)
                      • [![](URL of image)](URL redirect)



                      HOW IT LOOKS..

                      • Regular: it shows an image.
                        ![](URL of image)

                      • Clickable: click on this and it will take you to Tiny Cards.
                        [![](URL of image)](URL redirect)
                        optional text

                      You might want to host your image somewhere so you can get a URL to link to. In that case, many people use free services like imgur (make sure you adjust your album's privacy settings so the image is not public)

                      Some countries, such as Turkey have recently blocked access to imgur. Other resources that you could also check out are https://postimages.org/ ; https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/4-imgur-alternatives-for-uploading-sharing-images/

                      And to tease you further, check out how you can reference and make your own moving gifs.

                      What is a URL ?
                      URL : is the address of a World Wide Web page.

                      If you look in the address bar at the top of your web browser you will see this URL reference information.

                      Also see: How to get a URL

                      ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URL

                      Small images:


                      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/6147442 : discussion due to be retired.

                      return to top


                      Boom! Wanna work on some TinyCards? Click on the GIF!


                      Wait, I should've read Kanga's comment before trying to ask lol


                      What did you type to get that comment? I wish there were a "source" button that one could use on Duolingo to see the source of a post or comment, like how Reddit Enhancement Suite, an extension for Reddit, allows one to see the source of a post or comment.


                      Also, as someone has just pointed out to me,
                      Consider putting some text in the [] , don't leave them empty when linking to a picture. Text in here can be useful for if for some reason the URL for the picture won't load. However the BIG advantage is that for those who are visually impaired, their page reader will read the text in []and assist their understanding. It is a kind gesture to visually impaired users using some device that read them the text aloud.

                      [deactivated user]

                        [deactivated user]


                          How to leave hidden tags in your comments

                          This is something I have been playing with for a while. And now I am trying to work out how to explain it. And why this can be a useful tool to use.

                          You can use the picture formatting code to also embed tags in your comments that are discoverable by the Duolingo search engine.

                          This can be a very useful device to assist in documenting your own posts.

                          for example:

                          inside square brackets
                          ![inside square brackets](https://i.imgur.com/xe1RdYG.png)


                          lemme try 2019


                          How to prevent auto hyperlinks from being generated

                          In response to dogomolo's question:

                          Can I prevent auto hyperlinks from being generated like ASP.NET?

                          Try clicking these links:


                          Here's how to do it:

                          Result What to type?
                          ASP.NET ASP.NET
                          ASP.NET [color=#1cb0f6]ASP[/color][color=#1cb0f6].NET[/color]
                          ASP.NET ASP[color=#4c4c4c].[/color]NET
                          ASP.NET `ASP.NET`
                          ASP.NET `[color=#1cb0f6]ASP[/color][color=#1cb0f6].NET[/color]`
                          ASP.NET `ASP`[color=#4c4c4c]`.`[/color]`NET`


                          Basically, the .com .net .tv .co .uk .jp .internet (etc.) is the part which causes the site to think the text needs to be turned it into a clickable hyperlink (when these domain extensions follow directly after some other text without a space between them).

                          To prevent this, all you need to do is somehow separate the first part of the text and the domain extension from eachother.

                          Using spaces is the most obvious way to separate the text, but this is clearly not ideal:

                          • asp . net
                          • asp .net
                          • asp. net

                          The best way to do this is by changing the colour of the text either side of the dot or the colour of the dot itself (as I already demonstrated in the table above). To do this properly, it's best to use the same colour codes Duolingo forums uses for text:

                          • #4c4c4c = Duolingo normal text colour
                          • #1cb0f6 = Duolingo hyperlink colour

                          However, there is actually an easier way to split the text up! Simply put the dot in italics. The only downside is that the dot will look very slightly different. However, unless people zoom in, no one's ever likely to notice. Here's how:

                          Result What to type?
                          ASP.NET ASP*.*NET
                          https://www.duolingo.com https://www.duolingo*.*com


                          One special case is links in part of a question. Like Duolingo.com? To prevent question mark to be part of the link, write Duolingo.com[color=#4c4c4c]?[/color].


                          Yep. I noticed this in your original comment. ^^

                          I found it interesting that the question mark became /? rather than just ? in the url. I've no idea what the reason for it becoming /? is.

                          But yeah, I came up with that same solution you mentioned:

                          Write: Duolingo.com[color=#4c4c4c]?[/color]
                          Result: Duolingo.com?

                          Or you could do the following...

                          Write: Duolingo.com[color=#1cb0f6]?[/color]
                          Result: Duolingo.com?

                          ...if for some reason you still want the question mark to look like part of the url but not actually be in the hyperlink. :P


                          How your code for Duolingo.com[color=#4c4c4c]?[/color] is produced without highlighting?


                          Are you kidding me?! THIS POST IS AMAZING AND HAS HELPED ME SO MUCH!!! Totally deserves MORE than 48 upvotes! So helpful and so clear!


                          Hi daKanga! I wanted to ask you a question about image formatting...

                          When I post pictures, is it possible to make them smaller in size because most of the time, they look too large?

                          Thanks in advance! Duo9


                          I looked into this because I too had that problem. I solved it by just reducing the size of the original image, but I was able to do that because I'm hosting my images on my Dropbox.

                          I wasn't able to find any way to do this with the html that Duo allows.


                          Thanks, I'll try doing that. I'll see if daKanga has an easier solution.
                          Thanks once more!!


                          I do something sort of similar to what you do deepstructure.

                          However I tend to use windows paint, and resize the pixels to a smaller number. Save the image, then copy the smaller saved image to an internet image hosting site.
                          I often use imgur.com Though there are many other hosting sites.


                          I am also plagued by this problem; I don't think it's possible unless you do it yourself as deepstructure suggests. One thing I noticed - if you make a comment as a reply to a reply to a reply to a reply, then it will be crushed against the right side of the screen (just like the text which becomes an illegible column), and then Duo will automatically shrink the pic to fit the viewer's screen, but this is usually not a possible option and yields unpredictable results.


                          How did you make your table of contents? You need the comment ID from each of your comments to be able to link to them - how did you obtain the comment IDs?


                          I guess from e-mail notifications


                          That is one way. To get the link from your e-mail notifications.

                          And this is an issue I am wanting to dust down and post again here. For there is also another way.
                          I will return to the link for this sometime today.
                          However I am not happy with how I have explained it in the other spot. I am intending to rewrite it.



                          Ah, thank you. The key is "inspect element". Nice trick.


                          Mostly using DL on Android I forgot about that, thanks for reminding me. And you are indeed right, for the mail notifications a second account is required.


                          Actually this wouldn't work because you don't get an email when you comment in the thread, so you wouldn't know your comment ID. You'd only know the comment IDs for other users who post in it.


                          Just saw this, thank you for the shoutout Linda <3

                          I've updated my formatting guide to add strikethrough and embedded bullets because those didn't exist when I wrote mine. I'll stick with leaving the charts in here because of the monstrosity of posts I made back then when I exploited charts using CSS and they had to remove it.



                          Dutch article
                          de / het
                          this / these
                          that / those
                          De molen
                          deze molen
                          die molen
                          Het dorp
                          dit dorp
                          dat dorp
                          De molens
                          deze molens
                          die molens
                          De dorpen
                          deze dorpen
                          die dorpen

                          dit is

                          test 6

                          Nederlandsk *
                          Presens perfektum
                          å være
                          har vært
                          ben geweest
                          å ha
                          har hatt
                          heb gehad
                          • = første person entall.

                          ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 🌟

                          ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 🎄,,,🎅

                          ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄

                          ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, 🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅


                          ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,🕯,,,,,Zalig Kerstfeest,,,,,🕯

                          ,,,,,,,,,,, 🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄

                          ,,,,,,, 🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅

                          ,,, 🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄,,,🎅,,,🎄


                          Duolingo Text Editor

                          A browser extension that provides easy and fast editing and formatting of comments or posts on Duolingo.

                          Chrome extension
                          Firefox add-on


                          Duolingo Text Editor

                          NazarBodan, thank you very much.

                          What is especially nice is the preview feature. Clicking on the eye in the editor.


                          Feature request: Add a signature button, so that google can find all posts by a particular user. Google only finds posts if you are the original poster or if you put your name (signature) in the post.

                          Jim Oser

                          Novato, CA.


                          You can do this using Google's site feature.

                          Just put this in the Chrome address bar:

                          site:forum.duolingo.com "JimOser"

                          This should find every post you've made (searching for my username brings back 434 results!).

                          If you want to narrow the search to a specific post, use additional key words:

                          site:forum.duolingo.com "JimOser" "feature request"

                          This search brings up two posts you've made with that phrase, including obviously, this one that I'm responding to. Check for yourself.


                          Thank you.

                          I would like to find all of Luis von Ahn's posts after December 31, 2018 but I don't want to find other posts by other people named Luis.

                          I am trying this, which brings up Luis' posts but it also brings up other people's posts.

                          site:forum.duolingo.com "profile/Luis " PLUS after:2018-12-31

                          This, on the other hand works great.

                          site:forum.duolingo.com "profile/Thomas.Heiss" after:2018-12-31


                          Ya, you'd need to find his actual username to be able to narrow the search down.


                          I checked to see what his Twitter handle is and it's: @LuisvonAhn

                          And there is a Duo user account by that name: https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LuisvonAhn

                          But no posts come up directly with that profile name search. It does seem to be in some results, but when you go to those pages, there's no such user who's posted.


                          EDITED 19-29 Apr 2019                     ·
                          For a while I've been working on this specimen Polish declension table, recalling how I learned German cases in secondary school; but I needed testmoogle's hints of 23 Apr 2019 01:13 UTC ff. to achieve it:





                          Polish speakers will appreciate why I chose człowiek (with its odd plural ludzie) rather than the simpler – but grammatically feminine –mężczyzna.

                          My full code:
                          |Gender:[br]Case|masc.[br][br]|fem.[br][br]|neut.[br][br]| |:-|:-|:-|:-| |**Nom.**[br]* pl.*|[color=#]człowiek[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zie[/color]|[color=#]kobie[/color][color=Red]ta[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]ty[/color]|[color=#]dzie[/color][color=Red]cko[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]| |**Gen.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]a[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zi[/color]|kobiet[color=Red]y[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]t[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cka[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]| |**Dat.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]owi[/color][br]lud[color=Red]ziom[/color]|kobie[color=Red]cie[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]tom[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cu[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ciom[/color]| |**Acc.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]a[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zi[/color]|kobie[color=Red]tę[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]ty[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cko[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]| |**Instr.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]iem[/color][br]lud[color=Red]źmi[/color]|kobie[color=Red]tą[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]tami[/color]|dzie[color=Red]ckiem[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ćmi[/color]| |**Loc.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]u[/color][br]lud[color=Red]ziach[/color]|kobie[color=Red]cie[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]tach[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cku[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ciach[/color]| |**Voc.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]u[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zie[/color]|kobie[color=Red]to[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]ty[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cko[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]|

                          • The white space which indents each * pl.* half-cell is an enspace (half the width of an emspace).
                          • The Nom. line uses [color=#]black text[/color], the shortest possible coding (rather than the longer [color=#000]black text[/color] or the full-length [color=#000000]black text[/color]) to code for black text.
                          • Likewise, [color=Red]red text[/color] is shorter than [color=#F00]red text[/color] or \[color=#FF0000]red text[/color] for red text.
                          • As I continue editing, I'll insert a paragraph about short colour codes further down the Post.
                          • If page width permits, I may later add a column of Polish case names to help me memorise them.

                          How I got this far

                          To prune this Post, I've removed my failed Tables and their example code, which provided little extra information. (If I've over-pruned, let me know: I've kept the cuttings.) Here's what I tried:

                          1. Long single lines such as

                            I Nom. man woman child  (pl.) men / women / childrenI

                            in 7 columns (or just 5, with all 3 plurals in the 5th.) failed because Duo's ads eat 33% of my screen width, forcing arbitrary line breaks within words. So on the Forum I asked: "Are multi-line cells somehow possible??
                            Though TheNecromancer recalled seeing
                            Ia Stack Exchange answer saying that it's not possible to have multi-I
                            Iple lines in a cell with only Markdown, which is what Duolingo uses  I

                            I recalled that
                            Iif something is impossible, testmoogle tends to find a workaroundI

                            – and I certainly wasn't disappointed this time, either!

                          2. So I now aimed for two-line cells (singular+plural of each case), halving the number of horizontal separators and reducing table height—but I couldn't guess how to do it. Though I wrongly thought testmoogle's use of coloured text somehow produced the tidy line breaks I needed, my experiments revealed some unexpected tricks which shorten the code for multiple colour changes, as used in my above Table.

                          My responses to your responses

                          [My response, 22 Apr 2019 21:52 UTC
                          – lightly ed. 23 Apr for better newline, nested lists & < > formatting]
                          To keep down the number of posts, I've edited my full responses into this post. Then, so you know to look here, I'll trigger Duo's notification email by writing an brief extra post that I aim to delete shortly afterwards.

                          @ testmoogle: Please can you edit your post to display a few lines of your table's code to help me understand how you achieved 3-line cells? My browser's Inspect shows only the HTML code - <br> for line break - without the DML code (usually [space][space][return]) that generated it. Your colour alternation is presumably essential, but none of my guesses - e.g. [shift][return] for line break - achieve your result.

                          Your Table is rather more colourful than my plan to show black invariant word stems with red endings, so I devised the near-black DeepDeepGrey (used in my Nom. line), which can be alternated with itself by coding it variously as #010101, #000001, #000100, #010000 or even #000000 (true black). My practically indistinguishable variants differ by less than 0.4% from #000000. I find black text more legible than DuoForumGrey (approx. #4F4F4F = #555)...

                          @ daKanga:

                          1. Though DML is indeed fiddly and messy, your comprehensive DML Formatting Guide taught me its surprising versatility. I failed with
                          2. <Paired pointy brackets> often have nasty side effects: part of the text they precede may be lost after saving and re-opening a post (so save your post in an external editor too!); and formatting further down the text may fail. In this post, the numbered list refused to terminate normally. [To be reworked]: the apparently normal blank line termination actually contains invisible text (_ _) to simulate normality. To suppress the worse effects, I 'imprison' < > _<_*like this*_>_<like this> by using italics – which can be neutralised only with the aid of extra spaces_*<*_ like this _*>*_< like this >. Appearance might be improved (whilst confusing anyone marking+copying the text!) by instead using the nearly invisible thinspace HTML Entity: mark & copy the (invisible!) special character from Wikipedia's table [/!\ As yet untested /!\]. Also, highlighted code isn't always what the editor showed. So < paired pointy brackets > are definitely not WYSIWYG, though I hope someone (testmoogle?) can turn their bugs into features...

                          3. Colour perception
                            Perceived colours are 'optical illusions' resulting from the way the human brain processes signals from the eye's three different colour receptor types—Red, Green, Blue—to approximate the continuous spectrum of colours present in the natural world. Related colour illusions:

                            1. Subtractive colours (computer printouts and photos, print media, catalogues, coloured objects) exist which have no true additive colour (sunlight, artificial lighting; TV, computer, phone screens) equivalent.

                            2. Related to (1): Suppliers cannot display identical colours online and in a printed catalogue.

                            3. Some clothing colours (e.g. maroon) appear different near the shop window (daylight), within the shop (fluorescent strip lighting), and—the greatest disappointment—at home (incandescent lighting, e.g. quartz-halogen spotlights).

                            4. (2) and (3) help explain why so many remotely-ordered goods (e.g. clothing items) are returned to sender.

                            5. Colour-blind persons partially or entirely lack (usually) one colour receptor type. Though my father's Red-Green colour blindness disqualified him from flying with the British RAF (he instead joined REME, the Royal Engineers, for his military service), he could with careful consideration (e.g. after viewing the coloured object in both artificial light and daylight) often distinguish between Reds and Greens, and might say "You'd probably call that Green". On the other hand he was unusually sensitive to slight nuances in the Turquoise (Cyan) - Blue - Grey region, and became very annoyed whenever "the Blue-Grey colourblind", as he called us, used 'imprecise' names for such colours. After he'd admonished me and I'd viewed the object in both kinds of light too, I could often 'sort of' see the difference, though I had no precise name for the colour.

                              Different Blue receptors - enhanced colour vision. → Painter noted for her unusually vivid blue colours.
                              [to be continued...]

                          4. Short-code colours

                            Saturated ¾ saturated ½ saturated
                            ██ #F00 Red
                            ██ #FA0 Orange
                            ██ #FF0 Yellow
                            ██ #0F0 Green
                            ██ #0FF Cyan
                            ██ #00F Blue
                            ██ #F0F Violet
                            ██ #B00 Red
                            ██ #B70 Orange
                            ██ #BB0 Yellow
                            ██ #0B0 Green
                            ██ #0BB Cyan
                            ██ #00B Blue
                            ██ #B0B Violet
                            ██ #700 Red
                            ██ #750 Orange
                            ██ #770 Yellow
                            ██ #070 Green
                            ██ #077 Cyan
                            ██ #007 Blue
                            ██ #707 Violet
                                 16 Shades of  Grey
                            ██#FFF White
                            ██#DDD Quot


                            ██#555 DuoTxt

                            ██#000 #0 #
                          5. White Space

                            1. Special-character white space
                              On saving a post, Duo 'kindly' reduces most standard multiple spaces to single ones, but DML – and other forum languages – often ignore special white-space characters from Wikipedia's Table of HTML Entities (i.e. special characters) – mark & copy each character you need. My favourite White Space characters (mark + copy between the ◂markers▸):

                              White space equivalent to mark + copy

                              ½ emspace
                              ⅓ emspace
                              ¼ emspace

                              ◂ ▸
                              ◂ ▸
                              ◂ ▸
                              ◂ ▸
                              ◂ ▸
                              ◂ ▸
                            2. White space must sometimes be italicised (or even alternated between *italics* and _italics_), e.g. to stop Duo removing it before a line's first non-space character. Before discovering your comprehensive DML course I used white space extensively, and may still prefer it when e.g. indenting lines of a poem where vertical grey 'quote' lines would look messy. Here's how I coded my first Polish poem (composed of expressions from Duo's Polish course) and my English version:

                              **  MAŁE OPOWIADANIE**

                              *  *Mówię: Jestem cały twój!
                              *  *Ona mówi: Kocham cię...
                              *       *... jak brata.
                              *  *
                              *  *Jestem cały... smutny.

                              *     *~~~~~

                              **  SHORT STORY**

                              *  *I say: I'm all yours!
                              *  *She says: I love you.
                              *      * Like a brother.
                              *  *
                              *  *I'm all – sad.

                              *  * ~ Robin B. Jones © 25.01.2018

                            3. The Horizontal Tab [] is ineffectual in DML. Instead of nicely spacing out text, it mangles some paragraphs.

                            4. Tables, though tricky to handle, can give good results, whereby the weird 0-column table (cf. my De nada fork), a centred bold heading atop left-justified text blocks between horizontal separators, costs just 3 extra keystrokes.
                              With patience (to put exactly the right number of [br]'s in exactly the right places) I coded my English poem variant as a 2-column table.
                              Here the table is 'quoted' with >'s so the usual initial blank line (which breaks numbered lists) can be omitted—though the pale grey vertical Quote bar is untidy here:

                              >|[color=#]I say:[/color][br][color=#]She says:[/color][br][br][br][br]|* *"I'm all yours!"[br]* *"I love you.[br]* *Like a brother."[br][br]* *I'm all – sad.[br]|
                              >|[color=#]~ Robin B. Jones ©[/color]|* *[color=#]25.01.2018[/color]|
                              SHORT STORY
                              I say:
                              She says:

                              "I'm all yours!"
                              "I love you.
                              Like a brother."

                              I'm all – sad.
                              ~ Robin B. Jones © 25.01.2018
                          6. Please feel free to edit anything useful from my post into your main Guide. Possible headings:

                            • Pointy brackets: a health warning
                            • White Space
                          7. Readers may wish to mark & copy table text, so I prefer to avoid spreadsheet screenshots.

                          8. Thanks for the surprise ◂◼▸ Lingots :-)

                                ·· [↻ · 16 Apr 2019 14:26 UTC; last ed. 3 Nov 2020 23:46 UTC]


                          Closing pointy brackets shouldn't cause any problems when posted in Duolingo discussions. Afaik, only the opening ones are problematic. A nicer looking fix might be to simply put an empty code block immediately after all opening pointy brackets:

                          <` `like this>

                          <like this>

                          The formatting language used on Duolingo is "Markdown". The following couple of webpages are good guides for its syntax:


                          Back to the tables. My trick actually has nothing to do with using colours. I only added the colours as an afterthought, thinking it might look nice. ^^

                          Here's the same table but before I added any colour formatting to it:

                          Gend. →
                          Case ↓
                          m. f. n. pl.
                          Nom.‌ człowiek ludzie kobieta dziecko ludzie
                          Gen. człowieka row 3 row 3 ludzi
                          Dat. człowiekowi row 4 row 4 ludziom
                          Acc. człowieka row 2 row 2 ludzi
                          Instr. człowiekiem row 5 row 5 ludźmi
                          Loc. człowieku row 6 row 6 ludziach
                          Voc. człowieku row 7 row 7 ludzie

                          How did I do it then? The thing I'm using isn't part of standard Markdown at all, so you won't find it in any syntax guides. And I've also never seen anyone mention this thing in the Duolingo forums either - not in any of the various formatting guide threads!

                          The only time I've ever mentioned this secret formatting code myself was a year ago, when I was helping somone in the following thread:

                          Posting about it here, I guess this secret will be coming to an end... So I might as well also provide the exact code I used for producing the above table. ^^

                          |Gend. →[br]Case ↓|m.|f.|n.|pl.|
                          |Nom.‌|człowiek ludzie|kobieta|dziecko|ludzie[br]kobiety[br]dzieci|
                          |Gen.|człowieka|row 3|row 3|ludzi[br]?[br]?|
                          |Dat.|człowiekowi|row 4|row 4|ludziom[br]?[br]?|
                          |Acc.|człowieka|row 2|row 2|ludzi[br]?[br]?|
                          |Instr.|człowiekiem|row 5|row 5|ludźmi[br]?[br]?|
                          |Loc.|człowieku|row 6|row 6|ludziach[br]?[br]?|
                          |Voc.|człowieku|row 7|row 7|ludzie[br]?[br]?|


                          ohhhhhh WOW

                          You can use break row code command ! ie. [br]

                          Are there any other codes that work in Duolingo's current version of markdown code, either in a table, or for other purposes ?

                          Thank you testmoogle for this revelation :D


                          May you translate it for Spanish? Thanks!


                          Please, I ask you to not delete this. I still read the information and resources you are sharing with us here RobinB896941.
                          I am also establishing a separate post on the issue of using colors in text in Duolingo here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/32429295
                          And I would also like to encourage and support you to put appropriate information from here, on the post there.

                          And also, given more time, I will also find the resources to restructure and post your information in a different way of presenting it. But please - I will always recognize your input. And also welcome your input on discussions.

                          Again, thank you for sharing with this community the great gifts you have.

                          Gend. →
                          Case ↓
                          m. f. n. pl.
                          Nom. człowiek ludzie kobieta dziecko ludzie
                          Gen. człowieka row 3 row 3 ludzi
                          Dat. człowiekowi row 4 row 4 ludziom
                          Acc. człowieka row 2 row 2 ludzi
                          Instr. człowiekiem row 5 row 5 ludźmi
                          Loc. człowieku row 6 row 6 ludziach
                          Voc. człowieku row 7 row 7 ludzie


                          ohhh - I like what you have done there testmoogle as well as what RobinB896941 is doing.

                          edited: though as it also highlights - what you can do within Duolingo's current markdown is not as neat as what many of us would like.

                          The only other way around this is to create a "picture" of the spreadsheet, and to then load it up to the internet and then link to the image within Duolingo.

                          Further edited: [ UTC 22 April 2019 23:26 ]
                          I have read your reply below. I have a full day of other commitments, but I will double back here when I get time in my life and also show you some other code and results, of course based on your work. And I hope we may find out some other ways to improve tables.

                          NB: no apologies needed :D


                          @ testmoogle, daKanga, TheNecromancer:  [·]
                          To avoid creating new posts, I've replied in full by editing my original post. If you wish to do so, please respond there (or edit your previous replies, as appropriate): I aim to delete this brief summary post in a few hours after it's triggered Duo's notification email and let you know I've posted something new, and where.

                          @ testmoogle: Please can you edit your post to display a few lines of your table's code to help me understand how you achieved 3-line cells? My browser's Inspect doesn't reveal your full secret; I still cannot guess how to do it.

                          @ daKanga: Apologies for my lengthy response (the 'tail' of my original post)! You or others can, I hope, improve/shorten anything useful I wrote.

                          [22 Apr 2019 21:52 UTC ]

                          [23 Apr 2019 12:32 UTC ]
                          /!\ Please don't comment directly on this Post! /!\
                          I plan to delete [some parts] after using it as a Sandbox to rebuild my Table using testmoogle's recent hints!

                          [Update 24 Apr 2019 23:18 UTC ]
                          Now my Table works as planned, I've moved it to the top of my main post where it has more "elbow room", and added its source coding.

                          ▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀SANDBOX 1.0▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀
                                [29 Apr 2019 23:52 UTC ]

                          Poem as Table:
                          promoted (6 Nov 2019 16:24 UTC) to a better place, ¶ 5. White Space - 4. Tables

                          Short-code colours


                          ██ #FFF White|██(sp) DuoForumGrey|██ # Black|

                          Other useful 'colours'

                          • ██ # = #0 = #000 = #000000 Black
                          • ██ #4F4F4F ForumGrey (approx.)
                          • ██ #555555 ForumGrey
                          • ██ #555 ForumGrey
                          • ██ color= [space] defaults to ForumGrey
                          • ██ color= [most non-# entries] = Black
                          • ██ #FFF = white - mark this line to see it! ;-)

                          Test leftovers

                          ██ Colour short codes

                          These two don't achieve [color=#nnn]... [/color] formatting, and can mess up subsequent text:

                          • [color]██ [color] Nasty? [/color]
                          • [color=]██ [color=] Nasty! [/color]

                          ██ [color= ] defaults to ForumGrey
                          ██ # = Black
                          ██ #0 = Black
                          ██ #F = Black (!Red)
                          ██ #FF = Black (!Red, !Yellow)
                          ██ #FFFFFF = invisible

                          ██ #101010 = Black
                          ██ #FFFF = Yellow
                          ██ #FFFFF = invisible - Mark to see!

                          ██ #0F = Black
                          ██ #0F0 = Green
                          ██ #0FFF = Green
                          ██ #0FFFF = Cyan
                          ██ #0FFFFF = Cyan

                          [back=#0FF]██ back #0FF = Cyan[/back]

                          I- >[HorTab] + Line of text

                          ·· [ ↻ · 22 Apr 2019 21:52]
                          [Last ed. 25 Nov 2020 13:09 UTC]


                          I remember seeing a Stack Exchange answer saying that it's not possible to have multiple lines in a cell with only Markdown, which is what Duolingo uses. I can't find the link to the post with that comment though.


                          So, if you wanted to do a centered, two-column table it would look like this:


                          English Spanish
                          row fila
                          column columna
                          table tabla

                          And if you wanted to add formatting you could do this:

                          English Spanish
                          colored coloreado
                          shaded sombreado
                          italicized en cursiva
                          bolded en negrito

                          I see now that what I've done is very simple next to what others are doing, but it's good to apply what you've learned to see if you really understand the instructions and/or combine that with other code you've learned. Again, thank you for this post on how to color text with code. Your comments are super helpful.


                          /!\ ▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀SANDBOX 2.0▀▄▀▄▀▄▀ /!\·

                          Nerd at work – please just totally ignore this post...

                          256 Shades of Blue (#000000 – #0000FF)
                          bisected by white diagonal to the right of shades with exact 16-shade (short code) equivalents

                          F0██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ █FF
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██FF  #00F
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██EE  ██ #00E
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██DD ██ ██ #00D
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██CC  ██ ██ ██ #00C

                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██BB  ██ ██ ██ ██ #00B
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██AA  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #00A
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██99  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #009
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██88  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #008

                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██77  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #007
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██66  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #006
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██55  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #005
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██44  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #004

                          ██ ██ ██ ██33  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #003
                          ██ ██ ██22  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #002
                          ██ ██11  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #001
                          ██00  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #000
                          00██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██0F

                          16*4 Shades of YRGB + 16 Shades of Grey
                          Blue ≡ main diagonal (#000 – #00F)
                          of the above 256-shade (#000000 – #0000FF) chart

                          000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 00F
                          000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 0F0
                          000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ F00
                          000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ FF0
                          ––– —– —– —– ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ??? Marker Yellow
                          000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ FFF

                          16 * 16 Shades of Yellow (000 – FF0)
                          Shades with (R = G) lie on the (000 – FF0) diagonal.

                          F0██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ █FF
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ FF0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ EF0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ DF0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ CF0

                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ BF0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ AF0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 9F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 8F0

                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 7F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 6F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 5F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 4F0

                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 3F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 2F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 1F0
                          ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 0F0
                          00██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ █0F

                          Image Links - Test

                          Possible seed for a DML Cheat Sheet

                          Alt. text = Alternative text invisible to most users, but which:
                          (1) is read out loud by TTS screen reader software for the blind & visually impaired, who will appreciate an accurate description of the image contents; (2) appears on screen instead of the image if its URL is broken.

                          • Basic: ![](Image URL)
                          • Alt. text: !["Alt. text"](Image URL)
                          • Clickable:
                            • [![](Image URL)](URL redirect)
                            • [!["Alt. text"](Image URL)](URL redirect)

                          "Duo Design: current Lingot image" [current Lingot image] - (https://d35aaqx5ub95lt.cloudfront.net/images/icons/lingot.svg)

                          Retry 28 Jan 2021: Duo Design: current Lingot image [current Lingot image]

                          Duo's link refuses to display its current Lingot image here!
                          This link to Duo's Lingot image as archived on 27 Jul 2017 fails too :(

                          Retry 28 Jan 2021: Duo's link refuses to display its current Lingot image here!
                          Retry 28 Jan 2021: This link to Duo's Lingot image as archived on 27 Jul 2017 fails too :(
                          Retry 28 Jan 2021: This link to Duo's Lingot image just copied from this page's toolbar fails too :(

                          "Instagram" - Instagram

                          Retry 28 Jan 2021: Instagram - Instagram

                          "Twitter - Guess Who? II" Twitter: Guess Who? II

                          X Maui_Bartlett (7 May 2019 01:41-02:22) Highlighted, italicized text:

                          1. _highlighted_
                          2. highlighted?
                          3. Yes! _highlighted_ ⇒ highlighted

                          Naughty White Space (from Dessert-Rose):

                          <pre> - 20 leading spaces </pre>

                          Undocumented clickable text: URL Very Short Link to Forum Reply

                          • [This very reply](/comment/28284738?comment_id=32009251)] and
                          • [This very reply](28284738?comment_id=32009251)] [/comment/omitted]

                          both link to this very reply at
                          (discovered by forgetting the / before comment/...).

                          Making a hyperlink unclickable yet copiable


                          Franciscos' nicely simple trick works even with just one alphanumeric character before the colon:

                            [forum.duolingo.com](o:) ⇒ forum.duolingo.com

                          Before he revealed all, I devised an identical-looking unclickable fake URL that copy+paste will 'repair'—but my two-step code is significantly longer:


                          1. To break the URL, format its final . (in .com, the top-level domain) to *.* (cursive, the shortest text format) – testmoogle's shortest method.
                          2. [color=#2AE][/color] fakes the colour of true Forum hyperlinks.

                          3. Copy-pasting Forum text loses its formatting, 'repairing' the URL.
                            So mark the fake URL, open its context menu with a right click, select either Copy (to paste anywhere), or Go to… (which—in my browser—opens the URL in a new tab).

                          Notes for franciscos and rich

                          1. To retain max. text width (fewer line breaks), I commented higher up the thread than usual.
                          2. #2AE is a close 3*16-bit approximation to #1CB0F6, the exact 3*256-bit colour of Forum hyperlinks.
                          3. But franciscos' discovery is simpler!
                          4. The current "ForumGrey" of unformatted text is approx. #555 = #4F4F4F. For really black text, I use [color=#]really black text[/color], where # is equivalent to #000 or #000000.

                          franciscos has clearly achieved the Golden Owl on daKanga's [GUIDE] Formatting… Tree, including testmoogle's Bonus Skills ;-). He's also invented/discovered his #-link trick, resolving several problems that had previously defeated me (I'll try to write a summary later), and unobtrusively tested his knowledge here.

                          franciscos' method:

                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink](o:)
                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink](-:)
                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink](3:)

                          Before rich's question was answered by franciscos, I tried to guess how he might code an unclickable hyperlink that copy+paste turns into an URL.

                          testmoogle lists many methods, but also describes the simplest: change .com (the top domain) to *.*com: the final, cursive . breaks the hyperlink.

                          The single line of code
                          appears as


                          1. Format the final . to break the hyperlink. The shortest format is cursive, i.e. *.*
                            To break the hyperlink, change its final . (in .com) to *.* (*cursive* is the shortest format).
                          2. [color=#2AE]link…[/color] fakes the colour of true Forum hyperlinks.
                          3. Copy-pasting Forum text loses all formatting, 'repairing' the hyperlink.
                          4. Triple-click the fake link to mark it. Right-click the marked 'link' to open its context menu, and select either Copy, or Go to… (which in my browser opens the link in a new tab).

                          Colour-matching Duo's hyperlink colour = #1CB0F6 ~ #2AE

                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – true hyperlink
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – franciscos' fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #1CB0F6 fake ←
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #2AE fake ←
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #1AE fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – DeepSkyBlue = #2A80A8 (Gh0stwheel)
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #1BF fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #2BF fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #0CC fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – #0BB fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – turquoise fake
                          • ██ https://forum.duolingo.com – cyan fake

                          Still (partially) clickable:

                          Unclickable but right-click active.

                          • https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/36508390?comment_id=40691613 (=#0BB) comparison ██████#0CC██#0BB

                          • https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/36508390?comment_id=40691613 (=cyan: too bright)

                          • #1CB0F6 = Duolingo hyperlink colour ~ #2AE

                          • [color=#2AE]forum.duolingo*.*com[/color]
                                  ⇒ forum.duolingo.com

                          Special links:
                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink](.)
                                        ⇒ https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/
                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink](..)
                                        ⇒ https://forum.duolingo.com
                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink](...)
                                        ⇒ https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/...
                          https://forum.duolingo.com = [hyperlink]()
                                        ⇒ URL from address bar

                          Special links (less cryptic):
                          [text](.)text ⇒ URL: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/
                          [text](..)text ⇒ URL: https://forum.duolingo.com
                          [text](...)text ⇒ URL: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/...
                          [text]()text ⇒ URL: Current contents of address bar

                          Special links [Table]

                          Code Result Embedded URL
                          [text](.) text https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/
                          [text](..) text https://forum.duolingo.com
                          [text](...) text https://forum.duolingo.comment/...
                          [text]() text Current address bar contents
                          [te[br]xt]() te
                          Current address bar contents
                          [███[br]███]() ███
                          Current address bar contents
                          ██ ◸](l.k)
                           ████ ◸
                          Superman's shirt

                          SUPERMAN'S SHIRT (M; XL)

                          1. Code (simple text):

                            [█████[br]██](li.nk)[color=red]**`S`**[/color][██[br]████ ◸](li.nk)

                            ████ ◸
                             ⇐ Result (M)

                          2. Code (2nd-level heading):

                            ##[█████[br]██](li.nk)[color=red]`S`[/color][██[br]████ ◸](li.nk)

                           ████ ◸
                           ⇐ Result (XL)


                          1. The entire turquoise area (but not the S) is a clickable link …
                          2. … to li.nk (placeholder for the desired URL).
                          3. Heading text is already bold, saving 4 asterisks in the 'heading' version.
                          4. Each of my code examples can be marked, copied & pasted into your post(s) as a single line (edit out any unintended line breaks!).
                          5. Copy+paste the special symbols, or
                            Wikipedia's Table of HTML Character Entities
                          6. … but look elsewhere for a better Cursor symbol!
                          7. Ingenious solutions to 'insoluble' formatting issues are often posted by @testmoogle and @franciscos.

                          Unformatted text with URL, no empty line before ---

                          (occasional effect where Text → Level 1 heading; --- is ignored.)

                          Headings, Fonts and Formatting

                          1. Level 1 Heading (2 #) [normal██black] with URL

                          2. Level 2 Heading (3 #) with URL [≡ capitalised Level 4]

                          3. Level 3 Heading (4 #) with URL

                            • Normal Bold text with URL [a little smaller than Level 3 Heading]
                          4. Level 4 Heading (5 #) with URL or in DUO FOOTER GREY [color=#ACACAC]
                          5. Level 5 Heading (6 #) with URL

                          0. Special case:

                          <h1>Level 0 Heading (1 #) with URL</h1>

                          results from the code
                          #Level [color=red]0[/color] Heading (`1 #`)…

                          • In Comments, DML generates <h1>"Level 0 heading" html</h1> without interpreting it further.
                          • DML reserves "Level 0 headings" for page titles within the Post (the author's posting that starts the page), automatically inserting and interpreting its own "Level 0 heading" html.

                          Heading fonts – proportional & fixed width

                          Headings use bold fonts. The font is proportional – except for text highlighted as 'code', which appears in a larger fixed-width font. Highlighted non-embedded URLs use the proportion.al font.

                          1. Level 1 (2 #) – Text: Proportional;
                            Highlight: Fixed width;
                            URL: proportion.al

                          2. Level 2 (3 #) [≡ capitalised Level 4] – Text: Proportional;
                            Highlight: Fixed width; URL: proportion.al

                          3. Level 3 (4 #) – Text: Proportional;
                            Highlight: Fixed width; URL: proportion.al

                            • Normal Bold text [a little smaller than Level 3] – Text: Proportional;
                              Highlight: Fixed width; URL: proportion.al
                          4. Level 4 (5 #) – Text: Proportional;
                            HIGHLIGHT: Fixed width; URL: proportion.al
                            Faked Comment footer: DUO FOOTER GREY [color=#ACACAC]
                          5. Level 5 (6 #) – Text: Proportional;
                            Highlight: Fixed width; URL: proportion.al

                          Headings are quotable, even within lists…

                          • Level 2 Heading (3 #) with URL [≡ capitalised Level 4]

                          • Level 3 Heading (4 #) with URL

                          …but fail as Table entries:

                          1-col. Table
                          #####Level 4 (5 #) – Text: Proportional;
                          HIGHLIGHT: Fixed width; URL: proportion.al
                          In DUO FOOTER GREY [color=#ACACAC]

                                 Minimalist Tables

                          0-col. short-coded Table (⇒ bold, centred heading)
                          Code: |Heading
                              |Text line 1[br] … [br]Final text line
                          From: Formatting Codes for Duolingo
                          14. A LEVEL - by Dessert-Rose, 5 Jun 2018
                          1-col. full-coded Table (⇒ text & bold heading both left justified)
                          Code: |Heading|
                              |Text line 1[br] … [br]Final text line|
                          cf. Formatting Codes for Duolingo
                          14. A LEVEL - by Dessert-Rose, 5 Jun 2018

                          CSS? (See kiddo-depido, 19 Nov 2015)

                          Once upon a time (up to Nov. 2015), the Duo Forums allowed some very potent CSS styles.
                          Unfortunately, most users on that page emphasised aspects useful to trolls, spammers and hackers (e.g. overlaying others' posts with spurious text), maybe even compromising the security of Duo's Forum servers.

                          So, presumably to be on the safe side, Duo disabled all Forum CSS.

                          Back in 2015, a typical (safe!) use was:
                          red, bold text {@style=color: red; text-style: bold}
                          For further historical examples, see the page I linked above.

                          NOTE: A Post (the very first item on a page) differs from its Comments in the formatting of its Headings (e.g. Level 1 = ##). I may discover further differences once I write my very first Post…

                          /!\ ▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀DO NOT CROSS▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀▄▀ /!\

                          █ █ █ █ █ █ █ The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog [rainbow]
                          █ █ █ █ █ █ █ The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog [marker]
                          █ █ █ █ █ █ █ The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog [mark]
                          █ █ █ █ █ █ █ The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog [z]
                          ██ color=#D0E4FE ██
                          ██ color=#CDF  ██

                              ·· [↻ · 3 May 2019 UTC; last ed. 11 Apr 2021 11:41 UTC]

                                 ·· [↻ · 3 May 2019 UTC; last ed. 11 Apr 2021 11:41 UTC]

                                REPLY REPORT EDIT DELETE      • 1 YEAR AGO


                          Gosh I like your work RobinB896941

                          Just to share ideas, here I am using a spreadsheet to help create my tables.


                          To see how this example table is rendered, you can check out:
                          [Guide] Help Resources - in other languages

                          I have not got my head around how to explain why this is such a powerful tool. But I thought it may be of interest to you.


                          I am learning a lot from you guys thank you

                          the #-link is a html feature used on websites:


                          I had opened my element inspector and seen the id attributes, so I have started using them since then

                          But they were and are still bugged when the target has not been loaded yet

                          I updated my first post to report these bugs


                          Open Letter to daKanga         [next ↓ ]

                          Your impressive new task(s) – editing your long GUIDE into several short sections and translating it into Spanish – sound(s) like a lot of work! To (hopefully) make it easier, here some thoughts which I may yet post in my usual place. Though I began writing on 1 Jun 2019 (in an editor rather than in full Forum view), unplanned interruptions stopped me posting sooner. Since then I've fixed mistakes as I find them, but please alert me to bad links (easier posted than traced), poor explanations etc.


                          1. Lazy Forum links
                            • [Link to any Page(=Post)](28284738) • Fast [link to Current Page](#)
                            • [Link to any Comment](28284738?comment_id=32411944)
                            • [Same-page Comment](?comment_id=32411944) • [Fast:](#32411944)
                            • [Link to Username](https://www.duolingo.com/username)
                          2. Stretchy scrolling slows multi-post Forum page browsing, but linking to a Comment on the page (not to the heading Post, which has no comment_id) cures it.
                          3. Lazy Colour Codes: Short #RGB codes instead of full #RrGgBb.
                          4. Colour perception [work in progress].
                          5. Sandboxes.
                          6. Google-Translating English to Spanish.
                          7. Top 4 [GUIDE] Tips:
                            1. DaKanga's original Exact Post URLs via browser's right-click Inspect.
                              • My How to Get URLs of Page & Post (for Chromium/Chrome & Firefox).
                              • Duo's n TIME AGO date stamps with right-click copiable Post URLs.
                            2. Embedded URL (clickable text).
                            3. Nested lists.
                            4. testmoogle's tamed line breaks.
                          8. Why the Forum is the ideal place for the [GUIDE]
                          9. Terminology (Un)ordered Lists – Bullets – Nested lists – Headings.
                          10. Home-made timestamps.
                          11. Features DML needs.
                          12. Emoji – Spreadsheets – Errata.
                          13. International cooperation – Duo Community demise – Alternatives.

                          Main text    

                          0. This Open Letter assumes a certain familiarity with Forum formatting
                            intricacies. One day I aim to post some parts with fuller explanations…

                          1. Very short Forum links – No /comment/ !
                            In DML, 1.–4. all link to your same Comment on this Page:
                            1. [Same-page Comment](?comment_id=32411944) • [Fast:](#32411944)
                              Such [#-links](#32411944) don't trigger a page refresh (slow; eats download data) demanded by other same-page links, so browsing a (preferably fully-loaded) Page is rapid, and works offline too. The 'missing' page refresh of course means that # links cannot access any Page part not yet loaded.
                            2. [Any Comment](28284738?comment_id=32411944)
                            3. [Any Comment](/comment/28284738?comment_id=32411944)
                            4. [Any Comment](https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738?comment_id=32411944)

                              Likewise, 5.–8. all link to your GUIDE's Page(=Post):
                            5. [Top of Current Page](#) [NB Untidy extra # !]
                            6. [Any Page](28284738)
                            7. [Any Page](/comment/28284738)
                            8. [Any Page](https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738)

                              Defunct and reworked:
                            9. Hyllning's trick posted on 16 Jan 2016:
                              [username](/username) now wants to redirect to https://forum.duolingo.com/username, not to the current user profiles
                            10. [username](https://www.duolingo.com/username) seems (after extensive testing) to be the shortest route.

                              A ?small change:
                            11. On 22 Oct 2019, Duo started using ? instead of $ in Forum URLs in its e-mail notifications, so the old
                              …/comment/15672345$from_email=comment&… is now
                              The browser (Chromium in my case) automatically converts old-style Duo $ URLs to ? new-style, so our older links still work. Provisos:
                              1. Many "lazy links" require the ? separator.
                              2. An old-style $ browser bookmark loads correctly, but the browser quickly substitutes ? – the Post appears to lose its bookmark. The user will likely create a new one, actually a duplicate. To avoid this I'm gradually updating my Posts' links.

                          2. Stretchy scrolling – Mid March I began Spanish, but stopped dead on hitting De nada's Discussion page, which displays just the first 10 of (currently) 397 posts. To see the rest or search the the page, I had to press [Ctrl][End], wait 2 seconds, and repeat the cycle 39 times – too much for most users, who thereby miss older posts and re-ask a FAQ which I and others have repeatedly answered, sidelining my Spanish learning...
                            Any valid comment link, e.g. from a Forum email notification, loads all posts. (Deleting a reply after Duo sends the email invalidates its comment_id, and just the first 10 posts load.)

                            Stretchy scrolling isn't an issue in your current English [GUIDE] Formatting in Duolingo despite 296 comments [as on 21 Jun 2020]: clicking any List of contents item automatically opens up the entire page. Only a Topic's original author can offer that, so: Can sticky comments be used (by Mods at least), or just the sticky topics used in the main Duo Forums?
                            My De nada FAQ has risen only to post ~25 of 397, still invisible to learners who most need it, so I'd really need a multiple-choice sticky comment near the top of the page.
                            UPDATE 3 Sep 2019 13:50 UTC – On the De nada page I've put a non-sticky 0-column Table as a "signpost". It's still too low on the page, but maybe a few kindly Spanish learners will upvote it…
                            UPDATE 9 Nov 2019 10:03 UTC – Now my 0-column Table seems OK, I've removed its duplicate here, to:
                            • Save maintaining two versions
                            • Slightly shorten this long post
                            • Heal the Numbered List interrupted by the Table. (Tables work best as standalone posts, or at the very end of lists or posts.)
                          3. Short colour codes
                            • The 16 gradations per primary colour of short #RGB codes instead of full #RrGgBb codes (256 gradations) usually suffice for text, though a photo might need far more.
                              That said, the yellow area at the top right of my short-code Red-Green colour chart hints that some composite text colours need full codes for accurate representation.
                            • Both #F00 and #FF0000 represent the identical bright red hue. Other identical pairs: #200 = #220000; #300 = #330000; #100 = #110000; ... #E00 = #EE0000.
                          4. Colour perception – Colour charts
                            • My experimental colour charts are intended for my unfinished section on colour perception.
                            • I may well move the finished section, the longest section of my long main post, to your new, separate Color Topic.
                            • My preference would have been for you to incorporate my better ideas into your Topic(s) as you re-write them (in which case I'd post/email my full code, as needed), putting related material at the top of each page (and ideally on the same screen), but I'm sure we can agree a best procedure.
                          5. What I'll not delete – Don't worry (1 Jun 2019 14:43 UTC): I'll only actually delete failed junk; eventually I'll move certain things. If unsure, I'll cross out bits that now seem irrelevant, keeping them visible. Once something works well in my older Sandbox 1.0 or my wider Sandbox 2.0 I'll move it to its proper place within my rather long main post. I might then move Sandbox 1.0 leftovers to Sandbox 2.0. My original idea – to delete emptied Sandboxes and re-create (triggering a notification email) for new tests – is out of the question now that both have attracted attention (including links), so they'll become repositories for links to good stuff moved elsewhere.

                          6. Translating English to Spanish – In a former life I was a technical translator (science; technology; user manuals) from 2nd. language (German) to 1st. (English). Machine-assisted translation was then slow, poor and costly – no option. Now I'd not slowly translate from scratch, but edit a raw Google Translate 'translation' obtained in one of two ways (noting that Google stores our texts indefinitely, ostensibly to improve translation quality):

                            1. In Google's Chrome browser – or in Chromium, the open-source variant for Linux-based OS – right-click the main text area of a web page and follow the instructions. This helps me understand Polish Forum pages on the Polish reverse tree.
                              Other browsers can do this, notably Firefox (+ a Google Translate add-on), my only testable (i.e. installed) alternative.

                            2. Open two adjacent tabs in your browser of choice:
                              1. To translate English to Spanish
                                Copy+paste max. 5 000 keystrokes of your English source text into this tab's LH window; press <return>.
                                (If nothing appears in the tab's RH window, refresh the page; your source text in the LH window is safe.)
                                Copy+paste the result into your favourite editor or word processor for correction as needed.
                              2. To translate Spanish to English
                                Use this tab to reverse-test your own attempts in the target language.
                                You could instead invert the first tab's translation direction by clicking its – but your English source will be replaced by a garbled reverse translation from Google's attempt at Spanish.
                                The effect lends itself to an online solitaire version of Chinese Whispers. Type a source-language sentence (e.g. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak) in the LH window, click maybe 10-20 times until sentences remain constant (or cycle through a few variants) in both windows, and compare result and input.

                          7. Thanks for your GUIDE! – Some of my newer posts – DML Tables; Truly Black Text; Modal Auxiliary Verbs – would have been impossible or very messy without your and testmoogle's help. The Top 4 long-needed Tips (which also help tidy up my old posts):
                            1. Exact Post URLs via browser's right-click Inspect, saving much work:
                              Whilst learning Polish I often reflected on UK English in scattered Forum comments which I now aim to unite to Robin's Notes on UK English [under construction], a pool of links to such comments.
                              Without your [GUIDE] I'd have copied each Post lacking a nearby email notification comment_id into a new Topic with a known URL.
                              • On 22 Nov 2019 I took up your challenge to write my own How to Get
                              URLs of Page & Post (for Chromium/Chrome & Firefox).
                              • 9 days later (1 Dec) I saw four German for English speakers Topics,
                              and a Spanish and a Polish page, whose n TIME AGO date stamps
                              (unlike the old n time ago) contain right-click copiable Post URLs:
                              • DE – He's = he is or he has • "Du kannst gut tanzen!"
                              • ES – "De nada." • PL – "Jestem cały twój."
                              • DE – "Ich finde dich nett." • "Er liest das Gebet in der Kirche."
                              • Duo – [GUIDE] Formatting… joined late on 19 Dec (UTC).
                              The full changeover makes our Inspect guides near obsolete…
                            2. Embedded URL (clickable text)
                            3. Nested lists
                            4. testmoogle's tamed line breaks

                          8. Forum or Blog?LICA98 would apparently prefer you to put your entire GUIDE in one place (an external blog?), but your Duo Forum GUIDE has great advantages, being:
                            • Written in the exact extended DML subset it describes.
                            • Sensitive to Forum software changes, which show up immediately.
                            • Highly interactive: frequently updated by its users and ultimately by you.
                          9. Terminology – May I suggest changes to the terminology (maybe adopted from a famous Nordic author ;) ) you use in a couple of titles?
                            • Standard HTML uses <ol> = Ordered Lists (Numbered Lists); and <ul> = Unordered Lists (Bulleted Lists), with Bullets instead of numbers. Bullets are just the circular black dots ( • ) which introduce Unordered List items (as in the list you're reading), and is a misnomer in your Bullets title, which needs renaming Lists (or maybe Ordered and Unordered Lists).
                            • Nested lists seems to be the standard name (cf. Nested brackets; Nested quotes) for what you call Embedded lists (which sound like something else – contrast Embedded code or Embedded links, which feel right).
                            • Headings is the usual HTML name for what you call Titles.
                            • Though familiar with ASCII/ANSI faces, I expected Text faces to be about Typefaces or Fonts (invariant in DML?). So maybe Text-based faces?
                          10. Home-made timestamps – In most forums with no [post's URL] symbol near the username, the post's URL is right-click copiable from the time-stamp. Duo's Forum mouseover timestamps are/were uncopiable (but see 7.1 Exact Post URLs above!), invisible in some browsers and on smart-phones, and degrade to date stamps after 24h. So I manually timestamp posts needed later, especially longer ones I'd not enjoy rewriting.
                            Though I'd prefer a strictly logical high…low order format (cf. numbers) such as YYYY.MM.DD hh:mm:ss.ms, I use DD Mth Year hh:mm:ss (closer to UK, USA and German formats), in UTC to aid time zone conversions.
                            My private convention: UTC. indicates a timestamp whose comment_id I must yet add: [timestamp UTC.](?comment_id=LINK0)

                          11. Features DML needs:
                            • Tagged section headings (cf. Wikipedia)
                            • Background colour [backcolor=][/backcolor]
                            • Short username links [username](/username)
                          12. Emoji
                            Errata – At the top of your Formatting GUIDE and of your new [GUIDE] Duo emoji, some of your imgur.com links are broken.

                            White letter **i** within a sky-blue lozenge surrounded by a rainbow oval Little KangaRoo – You fixed your imgur.com links when I wasn't looking :-) To celebrate, two of your emoji (+ alt. text and clickable links) begin this paragraph.
                            Duo stores emoji such as its lingot in .svg format, invalid in DML. So might you be willing to add a lingot .png to your imgur.com collection? Others might like .pngs of Duo's Crown and Streak Flame images, too.
                            No need to ask for national flag .pngs, as your [GUIDE] Help Resources - in other languages includes quite a few, thankfully without Duo's rounded corners!
                            In your post about that [GUIDE] you ponder why Tables (and Spreadsheets – a theme too extensive for this post) are such powerful tools. My view: a well-constructed Table compactly stores a large amount of knowledge.
                            (Light bulb So could a long List of Contents be put in a Table?)
                            Conversely, just one cell of a Table may require much work – worth remembering when progress with the whole Table seems frustratingly slow (I can only guess how much time yours took)…

                            …but just two errors crept into your international [GUIDE]. Errata:
                            • It should be German Deutsch (not: German Deutsche): 'Deutsch', a noun, is the name of the language; 'deutsche' is one form of the adjective describing something as being German. So 'die deutsche Sprache' means 'the German language', but is of course too long here.
                            • It should be Italian Italiano (not: Italain Italiano) – a simple typo.
                          13. I enjoy our international cooperation across the continents. But Duo ended Forum PM on 19 Apr 2017 and frowns on users publicly posting anything that could help spammers etc. pinpoint user identity, so if you ever wish to exchange email addresses, just ask me to post my Twitter (preferred), Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn or Skype ID somewhere on the Forum. All five media have inter-member Private Messaging.

                          NOTE: From time to time I update this Open Letter to reflect changes made to DML, users' tips & discoveries, and my growing understanding of the subject.

                                   [ ↑ Top of post] [⇑Page top] [⇓Page end] [↻ Reload]
                                   [Created 2 Sep 2019 09:59; last ed. 3 Nov 2020 00:04 UTC]


                          Hey Linda, you said we can add colors to a table? Do you mean give the tables (gray, white, gray, white) another alternating color group (e.g. pink, blue, pink, blue)? :D AP4418


                          To a table, you can have the writing in the table shown in different colors.

                          Green Red Banana
                          blue Banana blue

                          Or change the color of every letter in a sentence.

                          Though it is a hefty amount of coding.

                          Code for the table above

                          |[color=#7AC70C]Green[/color]|[color=#D33131]Red[/color]|[color=#FFB020]Banana[/color] |:-:|:-:|:-:| |[color=#1CB0F6]blue[/color]|[color=#FFB020]Banana[/color]|[color=#1CB0F6]blue[/color]|

                          Code for the sentence

                          [color=#7AC70C]O[/color][color=#D33131]r [/color][color=#FFB020]c[/color][color=#1CB0F6]h[/color][color=#7AC70C]a[/color][color=#D33131]n[/color][color=#FFB020]g[/color][color=#1CB0F6]e[/color] [color=#7AC70C]the[/color] [color=#D33131]color[/color] of every letter in a [color=#FFB020]sentence.[/color]


                          This all makes me think ... you could develop a spreadsheet that would assist in reducing the time taken in coding ..... hmmmm ... If I create it, I will share it here for people to copy. Or perhaps someone else might like to create it.

                          Also, it is always a pleasure to chat with you ❀Amy❀


                          You're honestly a life-saver, have a lingot for sure!


                          Thank you all of you for your compliments. I do really appreciate them, and they also do encourage me. And some of you I know so well, and so enjoy seeing your voices celebrating things.

                          Though I have done this for a couple of selfish reasons that motivate me.

                          1. I wanted a resource like this, so I could look it up. For yes, at times I also forget some of these things we can do to assist formatting things in Duolingo.
                          2. I love seeing informative, well constructed and easy to read posts by others, about language learning. Which means these are tools that others will also benefit from. And this also benefits me and my language learning.

                          Thank you EACH ONE OF YOU, for your amazing participation for your language learning, and in assisting others with their language learning.


                          Can I prevent auto hyperlinks from being generated like ASP.NET?


                          Your mean like ASP.NET ? ^^


                          Yes I mean that. How you did it?


                          I actually commented how to do this a year ago here in this thread already. It's the comment where I talk about "how to make non-clickable links".

                          Here's a link to jump to that specific comment here in this thread:


                          However, I was a bit crypic in the way I explained it. People using mobile devices probably can't even read the text I marked as *spoiler*, since in mobile browser view mode Duolingo doesn't let you highlight text on the page. I think I'll make a new comment explaining it clearer. I'll post a new comment detailing how to do it in a few minutes. ^^


                          You are quite clever :) You should write your own comprehensive formatting guide.


                          Thanks. I think daKanga's guide is great already, although it would be nice to make a much more condensed yet still comprehensive guide. ^^

                          I've now posted that new comment I said I was going to, explaining more clearly everything about non-clickable links:


                          Sorry it took me a lot longer than I said. I got carried away messing around with stuff in my post. :P


                          testmoogle, I would support and recommend you making posts.
                          And ALSO others making posts.
                          And linking posts you make to and from other significant posts.

                          I agree, I would love to see posting a more condensed yet still comprehensive guide.

                          You will notice, I am also splitting up some of the topics in this very long post - to assist them to be found, while always being respectful and connecting to the amazing contributions by others.

                          We are greater, when with respect, we are a community that seeks excellence in what we do.


                          His reply is still a clickable link in email


                          Oh? That's very interesting to know. I thought this might be the case, but didn't know for certain. Thanks!

                          It's a shame I didn't get an email for my own comment to see it myself. I'm going to have to experiment sometime with how to prevent the hyperlink being generated in the email too.

                          Sometimes I actually already post a different edited version of my comment at first, to prevent content that won't display well in email format from appearing. Then, I edit the comment immediately afterwards and paste the full original unedited version I wanted to appear in the forums. So I could come up with a different way to have unclickable links for the email version of my comment, then edit it to the version that's unclickable for the forums afterwards. :D



                          Thanks for your excellent formatting guides!

                          I created a condensed guide with links to your guides for more detailed explanations.

                          Let me know what you think about it.

                          If you prefer to maintain the condensed guide yourself I could also provide you with the code.


                          This is FANTASTIC dlhgl !

                          And I would prefer you to retain the maintenance of this, and also other resources. I wish to support you in the gifts you give to this world.

                          Thank you for being SPECTACULAR.

                          I will link to your resource from a collection of other posts.

                          I LOVE living in a beautiful and healthy and diverse forest of many spectacular people.

                          Thank you again for this GREAT gift.


                          I have mastered the quotes and the lists but there is one thing I can't do, or find any instructions for:

                          How do I put a list inside a quote?
                          Is it possible?


                          It's certainly possible:

                          If you write this...

                          > - How do I put a list inside a quote?
                          > - Is it possible?

                          it becomes this...

                          • How do I put a list inside a quote?
                          • Is it possible?


                          Ooh, dark mode Duo. :)


                          Here is a TESTING GROUND for you to test all of this formatting. (just to share)

                          • formatting ground post is by Gh0stwheel I did not steal his post or advertise my own


                          How to post smaller versions of your images?

                          I noticed the last couple of days people wondering about if it's possible. I don't know if it will be helpful or if it's something everyone already knows, but here's a technique I use all the time.

                          *** This particular trick works only if you are using imgur.com to host your image. Other image hosting services might well have something similar though. ***

                          Basically, immediately before the filename extension (.png, .jpg, .gif,...), you're able to add an extra letter to get an automatically generated thumbnail version of the image instead. This works for every image hosted on imgur, even for using other people's images! There are various sizes to choose from:

                          The original, full-sized image:

                          Small Square:

                          Big Square:

                          Tiny Thumbnail:

                          Medium Thumbnail:

                          Large Thumbnail:

                          Huge Thumbnail:

                          Quite often something like the large thumbnail size might be the perfect size on its own.

                          However, a better way to use these thumbnail sizes is to use them as actual thumbnails! Use one of the small sizes like tiny or medium to display in your post as a link to the full-sized original image, like this:



                          Except you should put rollover text in there. 🤓

                          Click here to biggify


                          I don't believe Duolingo supports adding rollover text. They seem to have intentionally disabled it.

                          I've tried in the past but never managed to get it to work. I tried various different ways of doing it to see if one of them would slip through... If it really is possible, then I'll admit this is one thing about Duolingo formatting I don't actually know how to do. ^^

                          Anyway, about your example...

                          [![Click here to biggify](https://i.imgur.com/apaJB1Xt.png)](https://i.imgur.com/apaJB1X.png)

                          What you added there was not rollover text but rather "alt" text. Alternative text is what is displayed in place of the image if the image fails to load.

                          Still, that is good advice to put alt text in there. I believe alt text can be helpful for blind users who use screen readers. However I think the text you write for it is supposed to be a description of the image.

                          How to add rollover text?

                          [![](https://i.imgur.com/apaJB1Xt.png "Click here to biggify")](https://i.imgur.com/apaJB1X.png)

                          But, as you can see, sadly it doesn't work on Duolingo. I'd like it if it did. ^^


                          The ~~Strikethrough~~ code is another handy trick to add to the list. Oh, and could you please also add the code for the superscript format you used in the footnotes? Thank you.


                          WOW ! I did not know about ~~Strikethrough~~ Now added to the top. Thank you.

                          For the "superscript" - I used Titles

                          So as
                          this , i.e.##this

                          this , i.e.##this


                          Oh, I meant how you managed, for instance, to make number 4 look small (like a superscript) in this footnote:


                          Interesting! I copied and pasted your footnote and the number remained in the superscript format.


                          ahhh - good point.

                          Check out https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII

                          I will also ponder how to describe this in a better way, and perhaps add a section on this.

                          Also things such as: https://lingojam.com/SuperscriptGenerator


                          I also sometimes use a word editor, such as Google Documents, to get the symbols I want to incorporate.


                          Thanks! ^_^

                          By the way, these two codes used to do the trick, but they don't seem to work anymore, that's why I was wondering if there's another way.


                          My researching on this challenge has led me for find out all sorts of interesting information. Some of it I will be able to use on resources for language specific keyboard functions. So thank you for this question.

                          To the best of my knowledge and comprehension, for the standard character set for letters available through Alt codes, the superscript and subscript of all numbers is not available.
                          There is superscript available in Alt code for the numbers ¹ ² ³ only.

                          # Alt codes
                          ¹ 7419 ; 0185
                          ² 7421 ; 253 ; 0178
                          ³ 7420 ; 0179

                          Other than using word processes such as Google documents or Open office, etc., you could use things like :

                          Here also is the output for numbers, that you can also copy and paste from here:

                          | ⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹
                          | ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉


                          Thank you for this! I appreciate the update posts on these kind of subjects so that it gets put to the top of my 'followed' list.


                          Hi Lindakanga, thanks for thia excellent post. I have a question on the formatting to use in the Duolingo Club page. In particular, how to insert a link in the commentary (reply) box.

                          We can insert a clickable link (eg. https://duome.eu) in the top box to create a new thread without using text.

                          However we can't do the same in the commentary (reply) box. We tried to see if text works, but this was unsuccessful.

                          Hope the above make sense and we really appreciate your advice. Many thanks,


                          Hi there nekonekokoneko,

                          I am glad you are also finding this reference is empowering you. I will go do some investigations, and if necessary will fill out a bug report.
                          And also report back here.

                          Just to let also everyone know, if you notice things wrong, it is well worth checking out help to cross check any query you might have first.
                          Also, in relation to suspected problems to check I found a bug/cannot find an answer to my question.

                          Based on what you describe above, does sound like a bug, and will probably require a bug report to be filled out.

                          I will keep you in the know - but it might take me a little time, also depending on my private life commitments. But don't stress, I will get around to it.


                          Hi Lindakanga, thanks for your prompt attention. This matter is not urgent so please take your time :)


                          Hello lindakanga! I'm currently working on a project, and I think you would like to contribute to it. It's a collection of phrases that can often come in handy when browsing the Duolingo forums. If you would like to contribute, please tell me the username of your Reddit account. If you don't have a Reddit account but would still like to contribute, please make an account and tell me the name of it.


                          Can I do italicized text that is also _highlighted_?


                          this is how: _`highlighted`_ You have to use italic tags outside of the highlight tags, the other way doesn't work.


                          How am I doing the following then? ^^

                          italics​ nomal​ italics​ bold​ purple​ bold+italics​ italics


                          WOW!!!! THANK YOU SO MUCH!!! This is very helpful! I had a problem but now it's fixed!


                          Wow that's cool!


                          Bold is bold. Highlighted.Strike.Italic..._very fancy!


                          ***What will dis do? (just a test)***




                          Been wondering how everyone's using such texts, and it's now solved. Thanks a bunch!


                          You are welcome. Please also feel free to add to and improve any descriptions. Or provide links to other discussions that explain aspects of formatting that you find explain things in a more effective way for you.
                          You can also check out related / other articles that could be beneficial on this topic by checking out the "related" articles list. This is located either to the right of this discussion, or underneath it (depending on the size of your viewing screen).

                          Please also be aware I am constantly seeking to improve the header post (the information right at the top of a discussion), so it can be useful to recheck this post over time.

                          We are a community here, in an ever changing environment that seeks continuous improvement towards providing the the best, most engaging language learning environment that we as a community can. This also includes that there is not one best way. For each of us learners are also different. And different resources are more relevant for each of us as individuals.

                          Thank you for choosing to be such a positive and valuable member of our community mickey030210.


                          Sigh. I can't figure out how to get pointy brackets to display in the forums. How do I get this done? I've not been able to find the correct section of this post to solve the issue.

                          I.e, how to make this display correctly:

                          Dealing with the missing "<" before "prosody>" and "/prosody>" in the below. (And maybe it's something i'll have to do for both < and >??)

                          prosody rate="65%">il et elle, ils et elles /prosody>

                          Many thanks.


                          Right pointy brackets are well behaved (as you already know).
                          Left pointy brackets need coaxing into good behaviour. The neatest way has been explained by testmoogle: type <` ` (in words: "Left pointy bracket – grave accent – space – grave accent") wherever you need a left pointy bracket. The grave – space – grave sequence effectively generates an invisible space that keeps the left pointy bracket on its best behaviour. So you type:

                          <` `prosody rate="65%"> il et elle, ils et elles <` `/prosody>
                          to get
                          <prosody rate="65%"> il et elle, ils et elles </prosody>
                                          ··· ↻ [Sun 1 Sep 2019 20:03 UTC]


                          Many thanks.

                          I had tried the "grave accent – space – grave accent" and it didn't seem to work. Though I'm slightly dyslexic so it's very possible that I had made a small typo/error. (It wouldn't be the first time.) One of the joys of my life is that I can stare/study a sentence/phrase for a very long time and not see my error. So it goes.

                          Many thanks.


                          D'oh! Answered my own question.

                          Altcodes 0060; and 0062;


                          How to make it bold inside a yellow highlight?


                          **`Here`** –> Here


                          ​ But ​​ can ​​ you ​​ do ​​ something​ like ​​ this? ​​ :P ​

                          Also, ​see​ this ​similar ​comment​ I posted in this thread two months ago. ^^


                          Hi there PERCE_NEIGE <3
                          It is great to see you around these parts.

                          To highlight, you need to use the special backtick key. On many windows keyboards, you will find this in the top right hand corner of your keyboard.

                          ie. keyboard showing backtick key

                          It is not a normal key, such as the English punctuation mark of of the apostrophe (ie ' ) .

                          You place this special back tick key just before and just after the text you wish to highlight.

                          To say again, this back tick key is NOT an apostrophe key.

                          Please let me know if this assists you.

                          For more information on the back tick key, check out : https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=28284779


                          Can I take some of your comments and create them into their own posts? For easier reference?

                          If not that's fine. I am asking this because you said in the comments that you wanted to create individual posts for this because there were so many people commenting and you finding new things(or something along those lines).


                          Dies ist eine Formatierungsprobe, weiterer Versuch.

                          Hallo Jasmin, deiner oben beschriebene Erklärung:

                          Pflanzenköchin Jasmin Rose schrieb:

                          Die wunderschön blaukarierten Blütenblätter des Schneeglöckchens sind eine schmackhafte Zierde auf jedem Salat.

                          muss ich widersprechen.

                          Es hat geklappt! Vielen Dank, thanks, daKanga.


                          This is soo cool!

                          Edit: Omg! It actually worked!


                          Trying this out Should you expect results while you're typing? If so, that's not happening to me. Hi Edit: I'm surprised that it actually worked! Just testing out the colors, too.

                          [deactivated user]

                            The results appear after the comment has been posted.



                            Ich gabt dem Kind das Buch des Lehrpersons.

                            • Nominativ
                            • Dativ
                            • Akkusativ
                            • Genitiv


                            How do you make a word as a website? Like some mods will say "Click here for the guidelines". But how do you make it where the word " here" is the community guidelines?


                            In your post, type
                              Click [here](https://www.duolingo.com/guidelines) for the
                              Community Guidelines
                            and after you post or edit your comment it will appear as
                              Click here for the Community Guidelines.

                            daKanga describes this at Jump to other posts (links).
                                             ··· ↻ [Fri 3 Jul 2020 20:17 UTC]


                            are there other properties besides the color property? something like:

                            [size = 80pt] 80pt is the size of this text [/ size]

                            I found this site https://www.bbcode.org/reference.php for more examples, but only the color label is working here


                            Yeah, that really doesn't works here.


                            RamanDev1, it could be very interesting if we could use css styles here

                            Some markdown references allow us to use css classes

                            but I couldn't find any of them specific to Duolingo's version

                            Update 03 NOV 2020 03:22 UTC

                            RobinB896941 in his sandbox discovered the css styles worked before, but now they do not work anymore


                            Hello together,

                            I have a problem, with pictures I uploaded here on Duolingo for the Spanish grammar tips. https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/35726684

                            To convert the jpg files I use this tool. https://de.share-your-photo.com/

                            Today after exactly 1 year the images are no longer visible on the forum. Possible that they are automatically deleted after one year from the server of the converter. And I had to reload them - a lot of work to repeat in the next year.

                            Does anyone know a free tool where the files remain permanently on the server.

                            Thanks for any possible help. Angelika


                            I don't use the free services for exactly this reason, as I assume eventually they take them down for any number of reasons.

                            Don't know how much total data size you need for your images, but you can link directly to images in the Public folder of a Dropbox account. That's what I do for my forum images.

                            You just have to edit the URL link that Dropbox provides. For instance, Dropbox gives me this link for one of my images:

                            But to get that to show up in an image tag, I have to edit the last section after the question mark (dl=0), to raw=1 so the code looks like this:

                            ![image text](https://www.dropbox.com/s/wh4836tqa75yryy/Duo_email_support_button.png?raw=1)

                            Which then results in:

                            image text


                            Hello deepstructure,

                            thank you for your support. I think I will give DropBox a try.

                            The pictures are mostly screenshots of conjugation tables I make for Spanish grammar and they are mostly smaller than 300 kb.

                            Greetings, Angelika


                            Cool let me try...

                            Wow! Wow! Wow! Wow! Wow!


                            ░░░░░░░░██████████████████ ░░░░████░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░████ ░░██░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░██ ░░██░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░██ ██░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░██ ██░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░██████░░░░██ ██░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░██████░░░░██ ██░░░░██████░░░░██░░░██████░░░░██ ░░██░░░░░░░░░░██████░░░░░░░░░░██ ████░░██░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░░██░░████ ██░░░░██████████████████████░░░░██ ██░░░░░░██░░██░░██░░██░░██░░░░░░██ ░░████░░░░██████████████░░░░████ ░░░░░░████░░░░░░░░░░░░░░████ ░░░░░░░░░░██████████████

                            Thanks daKanga!

                            Duo 40


                            Link to sub-comments in a post

                            To get a link to a sub-comment.

                            • Click on the "time stamp" that is under a sub-comment, it will put the URL (link) to that sub-comment in your browsers address bar.
                            • The time stamp may say something like "JUST NOW" ; "5 MINUTES AGO" ; "3 HOURS AGO" ; "4 DAYS AGO".
                            • The address bar is at the top of your browser page.
                            • You than just copy that link, and you can include it in your post.

                            https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738?comment_id=46247171 : Problems posting pictures

                            this is a sub-comment in this long discussion.

                            Return to top


                            test test test test test


                            Thanks so much, Roo! :)


                            Also to you Maughanster_ ,

                            I see we are all in this together.
                            I also like diversity and empowering people to also contribute. ( as well as helping me to live up a bit closer to my expectations for me. )

                            I hope you have fun putting this to good use, for your own learning, and perhaps also to create resources for others.


                            Thank you just did my first post with italics



                            Please, please, please: add the ability to make table in Duolingo.

                            The formatting to give examples, as conjugations, declensions, or other logical stuff, is so poor !!


                            My dear PERCE_NEIGE, it is sooooooo good to see you around <3

                            We can make tables now. Check out: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/33570075

                            That will explain it further for you.
                            You will also see a link to this up in the header (top) of this post.


                            If you go to this discussion, by clicking on this blue link here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/33570075 .

                            It will explain how you can create tables in your posts.


                            Bold & Italic

                            • testing 1
                            • testing 2

                            testing 3

                            • 1562

                            Is there a trick to entering the flag emoji? I followed the instructions, but only got:
                            where two flags were supposed to be (well, the same flag, actually)


                            hm437e, you want the flag for Ascension Island Canada? Initially I got the same results that you did, but after a little experimenting I think I have it:

                            It seems for the flags that the two unicodes must be combined as ONE code, so no space between them.

                            So hexadecimal

                            &#x1F1E6;&#x1F1E8; &#x1F1E8;&#x1F1E6; ‡ =
                            Or in decimal code &#127462;&#127464; &#127464;&#127462; ‡ =

                            &#x1F1E6;&#x1F1FA; =
                            🇦🇺 I'm Australian 🙂

                            ‡ Sorry hm437e, the original error was in fact mine, I had the two codes reversed.

                            • 1562

                            Thanks, for the tip, it makes for a jumping off point. And it should have been the code for the Canadian Flag, where I'm from. (I get it, CA). ✒ However it would appear that the code is shared with Ascension Island.


                            Oh well, gotta keep trying

                            • 1562


                            Da DAA DA Daaaaaa

                            (Gotta get new glasses)

                            [deactivated user]

                              Maybe what you're looking for is

                              [color=pink]hello[/color] = hello


                              How do I use a different typeface? Occasionally I want to use a font that is specific for the language that I am studying, e.g. gaelach.ttf


                              A test quote:

                              Sunset and Evening Star
                              And one clear call for me!

                              End of quote

                              Another one:

                              Come away O human child
                              To the Waters and the Wild
                              with a Faery hand in hand,
                              For the world 's more full of weeping
                              than he can understand.



                              bold Italic

                              Hello. Test ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

                              Let's hope this works.


                              Wow! Good Job, Dakanga!


                              thanks for making this. i was wondering :)








                              The highlight does not work for me, Can you help me?


                              To highlight, you absolutely must enclose the text you want to highlight between a pair of grave accents—which daKanga calls 'back ticks', and explains one way of typing them. So:

                              • 'Testing6' ⇒ 'Testing6' (using single quotes = apostrophes) – unformatted text;
                              • `Testing6`Testing6 (using grave accents = back ticks) – as intended.

                              If your keyboard, like my German one, can add French accents to certain letters (à, é, è, ê etc.), you may have a [` ´] key with the grave accent = back tick. On my keyboard it's a dead key: press it once, followed by the letter needing the accent; or press it twice to get the accent on its own, which is what you need here.
                                              ··· ↻ [Fri 5 Jun 2020 20:58 UTC]

                              PS Initially I had trouble showing back ticks in my 2nd. example's highlighting, though I'm sure I've done it before. Some attempts before it worked (3rd. try):

                              1. \Testing6 ` `
                              2. \ Testing6 ` `
                              3. `Testing6`
                              4. ``Testing6``
                              5. Testing6
                              6. Testing6
                              7. Testing6
                              8. _Testing6_
                              9. Right-click copy to grab URL loaded in browser [DML test]


                              Ah, It works now :-)


                              for me it works

                              [deactivated user]

                                Thank you so much daKanga!! I am excited to use all of these formatting options!


                                it is supposed to be ![](URL link to the image here)


                                Yep, you can leave the bracket text blank if you want - that just shows the text you put in there as rollover text or displays it if the image isn't available.

                                The actual link to the graphic needs to go in parentheses, not brackets.

                                The format is:

                                ![rollover text](link)

                                So your code would be:

                                ![Duo owl](https://i.imgur.com/6gUnjvO.gif)

                                Which results in this:

                                Duo owl

                                • Hi
                                • Thank
                                • You

                                DON"T WANT THIS!!!


                                i am trying this did it work?!


                                So [/color=blue]today[/color] I will tell you THIS


                                You put a forward slash (/) before color=blue, which negated it.

                                It should be [color=blue]today[/color], which would end up looking like:



                                Lines: - - - makes


                                [color=xxx]Wow this is cool[/LIGHTSEAGREEN]


                                You got your formatting mixed up.

                                Instead of [color=xxx], is should be [color=lightseagreen]

                                And then after your text "Wow this is cool," your ending code should be:


                                So your code should look like this:

                                [color=lightseagreen]Wow this is cool[/color]

                                Which results in this:

                                Wow this is cool

                                What's happening is the browser reads the instructions in the brackets as code. These are called "tags," because you're tagging the text that comes after the first brackets with a particular attribute.

                                This particular tag is a color tag, which instructs the browser to "change the color to lightseagreen". And then the /color in the end set of brackets says, "stop changing the color to lightseagreen," (untag it).

                                So the code word is color. And the end of the code is /color. The forward slash tells the browser that this is the end of the tag. Anything in between gets the color applied. Everything outside the tag doesn't get the color.


                                why is [color=banana] red?


                                what happens if i put a random word as the color? test


                                wOaH pUtTiNg RaNdOm WoRdS mAkEs It GrEeN


                                Can I post videos too?


                                You can't embed video images in the Duolingo version of markdown.

                                You can though link to videos. Though please make sure external content is compliant to guidelines. And people, please take care when clicking on external links.

                                If you see anything against our guidelines, including links to inappropriate sites, do "hit that REPORT button".
                                And also consider downvoting the post.

                                This will be reviewed, and where appropriate action will be taken.






                                bold and italic




                                j'arrive pas à mettre une image

                                • thanks dakanga
                                  • thanks dakanga
                                    • thanks dakanga
                                      • thanks dakanga
                                        • thanks dakanga
                                          • thanks dakanga


                                Hello! this is a test and thank you DaKanga!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


                                C'est seul un test


                                Testing ### Testing Testing




                                wow and wow and wow and wow


                                Italic Bold Bold & italic Strikethrough Highlight


                                Where is the back tick for iPads


                                estoy escribiendo

                                ¿Por qué? ¿Le dan miedo los animales?
                                Why Him they give fear the animales
                                for whom
                                to whom
                                the action what is given
                                who did the action
                                indirect object verb direct object subject


                                italic and bold Thank you so much





                                [ 4] : TESTE 1 [ . 8 .] : TESTE 2 [ . .12 . ] : TESTE 3 [ . . . 16 . . ] : TESTE 4 [ . . . . 20 . . . ] : TESTE 5


                                Thanks, this is really helpful.


                                yellow hello


                                hello there wait does this work i can't tell


                                OttoRudolf, any coding you do only gets interpreted after you post it. If it doesn't work the way you expect you can go back and edit it (or even delete it) PROVIDED you are on the website through your browser.



                                • asdgasdg -asdgsdfgsga -asgasdgadg


                                Strikethrough Testing


                                cool Did it work I hope nice


                                Hello all! Hello all! Hello all! Hello all! Hello all! Hello all! Hello all! Hello all! Hello all!


                                bold & italic does this work?


                                whatever :,),,,, i may be stupid


                                Just abusing this thread for testing since there is no preview:

                                Pipe Separated Stuff


                                You can use preview in StackEdit.


                                I don't get it? I tried it dosen't work! hmm


                                it works ohmygod !!!!!!!


                                Stories set 2 in Portuguese, have been waiting forever!! Do you have them?


                                Here are the testing grounds.


                                Thanks! wow, I am writing in italic!


                                Thanks very helpful


                                strikethrough test italics and strikethrough


                                how do you do that? do you just write it?


                                Hi samsheehy10,
                                I am not understanding what you are asking about.
                                Could you give a bit more information of what aspect of formatting you are curious about ?

                                • test -test -test

                                • I do not understand
                                • I do not understand
                                • I do not understand
                                • I do not understand
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