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  5. [GUIDE] Formatting in Duolingo

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga

[GUIDE] Formatting in Duolingo

iGuide [GUIDE] Duo emoji ; [GUIDE] Links - all languages ; [GUIDE] WIU

Text:

  • Italic text:
    *Italic* gives Italic
    _Italic_ gives Italic
  • Bold text:
    **bold** gives bold
  • Bold & Italic text:
    ***bold & italic*** gives bold & italic
  • Strike through text
    ~~Strikethrough~~ gives Strikethrough
  • Highlight text
    `highlight text` gives highlight text
    To highlight : use the "back tick" key. Often on the top left corner of a keyboard. On the key that also has the tilde ~ . To the left of the 1(one) key. This is NOT the apostrophe/accent grave key ( ' ). This is the "back tick" key as displayed below :
    `
    i.e. keyboard showing backtick key The alt code for ` is 96.

Put a "backtick" around your text to highlight : `highlight`

For more information on the "backtick" key, for now please refer to: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=28284779


click here to see the Condensed guide to Formatting Check it OUT !

for more detailed explanations about other formatting options:


  • https://duolingo.wikia.com/wiki/Formatting : is a great resource for all sorts of additional Duolingo information, including formatting.
  • You can look up more markdown https://guides.github.com/pdfs/markdown-cheatsheet-online.pdf . Note: quite a lot of the commands mentioned in this github reference do not work in the markdown used for Duolingo forums.
  • Also - don't forget to check out the Related Discussions.
    ->
    You will see them to the right of this discussion, or underneath . Note: If you have scripts running this often "knocks out" this additional information. ;P

NOTE:

  • This is based on the excellent works of hyllning's posts, that you can view here:
    https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/13978562 This is an update to the information that Hyllning covered, as we now have new features available for formatting.
  • and also from knowledge from the ever amazing Jrikhal ιροp usagip iGuide iGuidef iGuideFormatting iguideMarkdown last updated 22 Oct 2018

August 2, 2018

175 Comments

Sorted by top post

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Embedded list

  • item 1
    • subitem 1
    • subitem 2
      • subsubitem 1
        • subsubsubitem 1
        • subsubsubitem 2
          • subsubsubsubitem 1
          • subsubsubsubitem 2
          • subsubsubsubitem 3
            • subsubsubsubsubitem 1
          • subsubsubsubitem 1
    • subitem 1
  • item 2
    • subitem 1
      • subsubitem 1
    • subitem 2
    • subitem 3
  • item 3
  • item 4

How to do this:

  • Start the first item with a - or a * followed by a space, then type your first item
  • Sub-items must start with FOUR spaces then - or a * followed by a space, then type your first sub-item
  • Sub-sub-items must start with EIGHT spaces then - or a * followed by a space then type your first sub-sub-item
  • Sub-sub-sub-items must start with TWELVE spaces then - or a * followed by a space, then type your first sub-sub-sub-item and so on.

Example code

Index of "[bracket codes]" used in explanation.

[ 4] : 4 blank spaces
[ . 8 .] : 8 blank spaces
[ . .12 . ] : 12 blank spaces
[ . . . 16 . . ] : 16 blank spaces
[ . . . . 20 . . . ] : 20 blank spaces

Example

- item 1
[ 4]- subitem 1
[ 4]- subitem 2
[ . 8 .]- subsubitem 1
[ . .12 . ]- subsubsubitem 1
[ . .12 . ]- subsubsubitem 2
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 1
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 2
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 3
[ . . . . 20 . . . ]- subsubsubsubsubitem 1
[ . . . 16 . . ]- subsubsubsubitem 1
[ 4]- subitem 1
- item 2
[ 4]- subitem 1
[ . 8 .]- subsubitem 1
[ 4]- subitem 2
[ 4]- subitem 3
- item 3
- item 4

ps. also check out the sub discussion here on "Quotes" nested quoting This is a different style that may also be appropriate for some authors.


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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

With *:

  • test

    • test

      • test

With -:

  • test

    • test

      • test

I think * and - are interchangeable.

October 31, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

ohhh - thank you for this update, and contributing to our shared knowledge :D

NOTE: the post above has been edited, due to this information shared by TheNecromancer10

December 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Harry.110

'highlight' - drat, didn't work...

July 7, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Harry.110

hightlight Oohhh! By George, I think I've got it!

July 7, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dessert-Rose
  • Check
    • Check
      • Check
        • Check
          • Check
            • Check
          • Check
        • Check
      • Check
    • Check
  • Check

EDIT: I just noticed that it doesn't work above 16. For example, 20 spaces doesn't work: Example:

<pre> - Check </pre>

AP4418

January 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

daKanga, you're quite the magician!

September 28, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Ummm ohhhh shucks, ((blush)), why would you say that ?

September 29, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/01LearnFrench01

Testing

  • item 1

    • subitem 1
    • subitem 2
  • Item 2

    • subitem 1
    • subitem 2
January 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

This is so cool!

July 23, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Spacing:

There are two types of spacing that you can use between lines of text or images.

Single Spacing

Single Spacing is what you'd use to have text right underneath the previous line. Press the [Space Bar] twice, or have two spaces after your text, and then click [Enter]. That will result in no space between the two lines of text.
Space + Space + Enter_key

Example:

Test I
Test II

Double Spacing

A very common way of spacing. And perfect for creating a new paragraph. Press the [Enter] key twice after a line of text / code.
Enter_key + Enter_key

Example:

Test I

Test II


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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

To show your embedded Code (and to highlight)

Code-Block Text:
This is useful, to show what coding you might have used in formatting your post.
It means your code is not translated into an action. Instead it shows the code.
Or when you want to highlight something in yellow :D
i.e. `code` becomes code

or you can use the backslash before you type your code.
will show the code without highlighting it yellow.

nb, this is using the grave accent key. When used in programming it is often referred to this as the back tick key. On many keyboards it shares its key with ~ , known as a tilde accent diacritic by many of us and is often located in the top left corner of a keyboard.

The alt code for ` is 96.


To show back tick ` key at the start of a line

\ `
i.e. [backslash '\'] + [backtick `]

This gives you :
`

Why you would want to use a back tick ` , to have it shown in text, I do not know.
The back tick ` is different to the standard use of apostrophe (‘). The apostrophe on most English keyboards is located two keys to the right of the "L" key.


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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

How to start a line with the grave accent `

Type:
\`
i.e. ( backslash + grave accent ).

This will give you:
`
`test with backslash + backtick + text.
`test with backslash + two backticks around text`

\test with two backlashes + two backticks around text

\`test with three backslashes + two backticks`

note:
the backslash will remove other special characters, such as [ ] ( )
while the backtick will show the formatting code, including special characters.

December 7, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Joonchan.38

Test *Bold and Italic*`

August 19, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ReyGirl2

Thank you, lindakanga! I had no clue that highlighting was even a thing!

August 24, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Images: Stage 2

I want to post my own images

If you want to post an image you have created in a Duolingo Discussion, you need to host it somewhere.
You can check out `image hosting sites' to locate one, and many are free.
A common one I see used here is https://imgur.com

A simple way to show images in Discussions.

Use image links that have .png, .jpg, .gif, etc. in their URL. You cannot use images from your computer, you'll need a link to an image that is stored up on the WWW, ie you need to link to an image hosting site, to either a picture already on the image hosting site, or to create and save an image to the site.

Basic

  • ![](URL of image)

Optional Text

  • !["optional text/hover text"](URL of image)

    Please consider always including "hover text", as this also is of assistance to people with vision impairment, or if their internet is slow, or the region/country they are in blocks the reference for the image.

Clickable

  • [!["optional text"](URL of image)](URL redirect)
  • [![](URL of image)](URL redirect)

Examples:

⁵ THE "URL redirect" IS THE LINK THAT YOU WANT THE IMAGE TO GO TO WHEN CLICKED.

HOW IT LOOKS..

  • Regular: it shows an image.
    ![](URL of image)

  • Clickable: click on this and it will take you to Tiny Cards.
    [![](URL of image)](URL redirect)
    optional text

You might want to host your image somewhere so you can get a URL to link to. In that case, many people use free services like imgur (make sure you adjust your album's privacy settings so the image is not public)

Some countries, such as Turkey have recently blocked access to imgur. Other resources that you could also check out are https://postimages.org/ ; https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/4-imgur-alternatives-for-uploading-sharing-images/


And to tease you further, check out how you can reference and make your own moving gifs.


What is a URL ?
URL : is the address of a World Wide Web page.

If you look in the address bar at the top of your web browser you will see this URL reference information.

Also see: How to get a URL

ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URL


Small images:

kangaroo

https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/6147442 : discussion due to be retired.


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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dessert-Rose

Boom! Wanna work on some TinyCards? Click on the GIF!

January 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

Wait, I should've read Kanga's comment before trying to ask lol

February 11, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

What did you type to get that comment? I wish there were a "source" button that one could use on Duolingo to see the source of a post or comment, like how Reddit Enhancement Suite, an extension for Reddit, allows one to see the source of a post or comment.

January 28, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Also, as someone has just pointed out to me,
Consider putting some text in the [] , don't leave them empty when linking to a picture. Text in here can be useful for if for some reason the URL for the picture won't load. However the BIG advantage is that for those who are visually impaired, their page reader will read the text in []and assist their understanding. It is a kind gesture to visually impaired users using some device that read them the text aloud.

June 1, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

How to leave hidden tags in your comments

This is something I have been playing with for a while. And now I am trying to work out how to explain it. And why this can be a useful tool to use.

You can use the picture formatting code to also embed tags in your comments that are discoverable by the Duolingo search engine.

This can be a very useful device to assist in documenting your own posts.

for example:

inside square brackets
![inside square brackets](https://i.imgur.com/xe1RdYG.png)

December 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Saraham.-.

lemme try 2019

June 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Special Characters

moved: see: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/33573912

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Separator Lines:

Used a lot for organization in Discussion posts.

There are multiple codes for Separator Lines, [ - - - ] is one you can use. Just make sure to use it in its own line.

Code:

---

Creates:


and so on ...


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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4
<pre> Hello </pre>

(Test)

July 23, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Quotes:

To make a Quote, you'll need to use [>]⁴ for each one that you would like to create. You can make it one line (i.e. continuous), or nested (see below).

Basic Quote (continuous vertical line)

Quote line 1
Quote line 2

Code option 1:

> Quote line 1 ( note: there are two blank spaces before pressing the return key once.)
Quote line 2

Code option 2:

> Quote line 1 ( note: there are two blank spaces before pressing the return key once.)
>Quote line 2


Only one line of basic quote

If you only want a quote for one line of comments and want the next line to return to the "base" horizontal position, then add a blank return line.

i.e.

Quote line 1

Line 2 - not nested/quoted

code:

> Quote line 1 (note 2 blank spaces before 2 return lines)

Quote line 2


Continuous Quoting

This is what you would use for multiple lines (each with quotes symbol of > indents) in a single paragraph, that will present your text as a contiguous horizontal line.

Line I

Line II

Line III

Code:

> Line I

> Line II

> Line III

and so on..


Nested Quoting

Nested quoting is what you would use if you'd like to have quotes inside another. In order to do this, you'll need to increase the number of [>] by one for each line you want to "nest".

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

Code:

>Test 1

>>Test 2

>>>Test 3

and so on..

⁴ ON SOME PLATFORMS, YOUR [>] MAY NOT SHOW UP. JUST EDIT YOUR POST BY REPLACING THOSE AGAIN AND IT SHOULD FIX IT TO BECOME THE QUOTATION FORMATTING STYLE YOU ARE SEEKING.

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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lisa4duolingo

Your instructions are very thorough. I happened to figure out what you've stated in your footnote through trial and error, but it's good to see that your instructions actually include that detail. I can see it preventing a lot of frustration for some!

Since you've been so helpful, I'd like to return the favor in some small way (besides a lingot), but I hope I don't come across as a snob about English. In your footnote you wrote:

ON SOME PLATFORMS, YOUR [>] COULD NOT SHOW UP.

I am neither an English professor nor a teacher, nor did I even major in English in college, so I don't know how to explain this that well, but to be brief, the use of "could" is not correct. You need to use "might." How do I know this? Well, as a native speaker, "could not" in this sentence just sounds bad. In fact, I had to read through this footnote a couple of times before I understood it.

But I feel as if you deserve more than just taking my word for it, so I hunted down a page that spells out exactly why you don't want to use "could not" in a sentence like that. If you Google "could not" together with "might not," you'll find at least a few pages on this. I didn't take a look at them all, but this one definitely contains information on what I'm getting at here. If you can't link to it, it is basically this:

"Could not" suggests that it is impossible for something to happen. "Might not" suggests you do not know if something happens.

HTH and thank you again for all the help you've given us!

April 29, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Thank you for this considered response.
And I will read through this again, and I am sure make a correction to the sentence you are talking about, as you have mentioned.

I would also encourage you to present any of the information I have presented in a different way.
Including to put the issues that you found more confusing in a clearer way.

I welcome your feedback, and your valued contribution to understanding.
Also I encourage any one of us to create a new post that describes information in a better way.

Often with explanations there are many ways to explain things. And to explain things that make more sense and are more applicable to other individuals.

edited:
ummm in re-reading all I typed above - it was such a dogs breakfast. I have done LOTS of editing. Thank you for drawing my attention to this. I continue to be very unhappy with about the clarity of the post above.

Again, thank you lisa4duolingo for this valuable input.

April 29, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

What about how to make non-clickable links? ^^

https://www.duolingo.com
https://www.duolingo.com

You could make use of this in your guide, to prevent web addresses in your examples from being unwantedly automatically turned into clickable links.

For example:

[Duolingo](https://www.duolingo.com)
[Duolingo](https://www.duolingo.com)

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

ok so what is the "code" you have used between making a clickable link, or a non clickable link ?
It is not clear to me with what you have posted above.

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

It's more of a trick rather than there being any formatting code for this. I'm hoping people might have a go at figuring out how I did this themselves... Still, I'll leave the answer below anyway. ^^

* spoiler *
https://www.duolingo*.*com

Or, a more risky version for perfectionists:
https://www.duolingo[color=#4c4c4c].[/color]com

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

ooooh - you are tricky testmoogle ;P

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

Hehe. ^^

Btw, I forgot to provide the answer to the other example I used – how to get it working inside your yellow highlighted text. To do this is a little trickier:

`[Duolingo](https://www.duolingo`*`.`*`com)`

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

I have just fallen in "roo" love with you testmoogle ;P
As in you are BRILLIANT and INSPIRATIONAL !

Thank you for this tip !

: roo hurries away and makes some more notes, as a roo is likely to do, and wonders how they help themselves and others to use this extreme shared skill :

Again THANK YOU !

August 6, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Badry21

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ
## ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ ##

July 26, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Arachnje

Brilliant!

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Titles:

Titles are often used at the beginning of Discussion posts and at the beginning of segments in posts.

  • ##Title No. I - 2 # keys:

Title No. I - 2 # keys:

  • ###Title NO. II - 3#keys:

Title NO. II - 3#keys:

  • ####Title No. III - 4#keys:

Title No. III - 4#keys:

  • #####Title No. IV - 5#keys:
Title No. IV - 5#keys:
  • ######Title NO. V - 6#keys:
Title NO. V - 6#keys:

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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/abbyandoreo

Woah! Thanks!

February 4, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

I am testing whether h3 is essentially h5 in all caps. The first line uses h3 and the second uses h5.

I am testing.

I AM TESTING.
May 9, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Badry21

ـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

二二二二二二二二二

|||||||||||||||||||||||||||

July 26, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/FerdinandBol

test

Test

Q1: Selecteer de missende zin:

  • A: Hoe herken je
  • B: ❤❤❤ luister je naar
  • C: ❤❤❤ weet je

  • test

  • test

test


1

2

3

1

2

3

Answer: B

hallo h[color=#4C4C4C]o[/color]e gaat het?

test
test

test

test

June 30, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Bullets:

Used for organization and for listing items.

Non-Organized

  • Text
  • Text
  • Text

( you can use instead a single * , or + , instead of the - )

Code:

- Text
- Text
- Text

and so on..

nb: for lists, remember to leave a blank line above where you first commence your list.
Otherwise your list will appear as:
- Text - Text - Text

Organized

For automatically numbered bullets, the first line must be pre-numbered. Type [1.] (and your text) for the first line, then every line after that, you'll only need to type [-] for it to number itself.

  1. Test 1

  2. Test 2

  3. Test 3

Code:

1. Test 1

- Test 2

- Test 3

and so on...

- - point :

    • point
      note: two spaces between the two hyphens.
      • point
type your text
type your next line of text

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August 2, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4
  • Thank you! Here are Lingots for you, daKanga!
July 23, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

oh why, thank you toggitang4 !

August 11, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SchilSam1

You're honestly a life-saver, have a lingot for sure!

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Thank you all of you for your compliments. I do really appreciate them, and they also do encourage me. And some of you I know so well, and so enjoy seeing your voices celebrating things.

Though I have done this for a couple of selfish reasons that motivate me.

  1. I wanted a resource like this, so I could look it up. For yes, at times I also forget some of these things we can do to assist formatting things in Duolingo.
  2. I love seeing informative, well constructed and easy to read posts by others, about language learning. Which means these are tools that others will also benefit from. And this also benefits me and my language learning.

Thank you EACH ONE OF YOU, for your amazing participation for your language learning, and in assisting others with their language learning.

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/icemule1

How did you make your table of contents? You need the comment ID from each of your comments to be able to link to them - how did you obtain the comment IDs?

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SteffiBookworm

I guess from e-mail notifications
¯(ツ)

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

That is one way. To get the link from your e-mail notifications.

And this is an issue I am wanting to dust down and post again here. For there is also another way.
I will return to the link for this sometime today.
However I am not happy with how I have explained it in the other spot. I am intending to rewrite it.

https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/6147442

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/icemule1

Ah, thank you. The key is "inspect element". Nice trick.

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/SteffiBookworm

Mostly using DL on Android I forgot about that, thanks for reminding me. And you are indeed right, for the mail notifications a second account is required.

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/icemule1

Actually this wouldn't work because you don't get an email when you comment in the thread, so you wouldn't know your comment ID. You'd only know the comment IDs for other users who post in it.

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

It is useful to do this - if you are wishing to link to others comment posts.
This is also something I seek to do - to highlight the work of others.

Though at times this has, of course, backfired on me, as the posts I have linked to have been removed. So I also try to be cautious in this regard, and of course choose to NEVER be angry about this ( and learn to accept my sadness ) ( though that is always - a work in progress for me ;P )

December 8, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dessert-Rose

You're AWESOME, lindakanga! Thank you so much for this!

August 3, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
Mod
  • 253

Jump to other posts :

Basic Link

[text](URL)

Also known as "Links".

Example:


Duolingo Linking

  • You can always just use the regular URL Link, if you'd like, but this is how to name and hyperlink them.

Duolingo Links are the same as regular links, but replacing forum.duolingo.com in the URL with a Forward Slash [ / ].

Essentially:

You can use these with Duolingo pages, just start with [ / ] before your "link text".

Example:

Also see: How to get a URL


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What is a URL ?

URL : is the address of a World Wide Web page.

If you look in the address bar at the top of your web browser you will see this URL reference information.

For more information, also see: How to get a URL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/URL


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August 5, 2018

[deactivated user]

    I have been trying to format the link as a word like your first example, but I haven't been able to. I'm always forced to use the regular URL.

    For example, Collins [retablir] becomes Collins [retablir][https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/french-english/rétablir] . (There is no space between the first closed bracket and the second open bracket.) Is there another way to do this?

    February 12, 2019

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/JimOser

    The first part needs left and right brackets. [first part]

    The second part needs left and right parenthesizes.

    (second part).

    Collins retablir

    second part has in parenthesizes

    https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/french-english/rétablir

    February 12, 2019

    [deactivated user]

      Thanks! For some odd reason, the curve in the parentheses appears straight when it is next to a bracket. Must be an optical illusion for me

      February 13, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/MobiuS_360

      test my life

      March 15, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Esen.

      Excuse me, but how do you jump to comments inside posts (i.o.w., how do you find the comment ID?)?

      July 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      How do you find a page URL ? : Generaly

      1. Locate the page you want to find.
      2. In your browser’s address bar at the top of the page, click once to select the entire URL. Copy the URL by right-clicking it and then selecting Copy. Paste the URL by right-clicking it and then selecting Paste. ( or "Ctrl + C" )

      How do you get a published image URL ?

      1. Locate the image you want.
      2. Right-click the image. Depending on what system you’re using, select the image URL by clicking one of these:
        • Chrome: Copy image address
        • Safari: Copy image address
        • Internet Explorer: Properties and then Copy the URL address shown
        • Firefox: Copy image location

      Alternate reference (AltRef): https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/63758?hl=en

      (hold on to your horses ... more to come ;P )

      ![](https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e3/Animhorse.gif/300px-Animhorse.gif)

      ref: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_animation


      return to top

      August 6, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      How do I find the URL of a Response Post to Discussion page in Duolingo?

      This is how to reference the URL in Duolingo of a Response Post to the original Header Post (HP) of a discussion. To locate the URL of HP, refer above to HOW DO YOU FIND A PAGE URL ?

      1. Locate the discussion (HP) Take a note of the HP URL address, say in a separate clip board/note pad. Or say on the header of new browser window. Whatever works best for you. It will look something like
        https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/888888
        where 888888 is the reference number of the HP.
      2. Locate the Response Post (RP) that you wish to reference.
      3. Move your mouse to click on the RP, to highlight a word in the post.

        This is to help insure you are in the "current property" (correct location). Then,

      4. Select "Inspect element". Do this by right clicking on your mouse, to display a pop up window that at the bottom will display the option "inspect" Click on this option. ( or "Cntrl+Shift+i" )

        Another panel will display to either the right or bottom of the window.

      5. Most likely, the "Elements" tab on the top will be selected.
        Then there should be tab menu, that should include things such as :
        html body #root div div div main div section div div div div div #999999.XXXXX ...
        (ps. and yes as a heads up, in my google chrome - it is written in purple ;P ) It is the number, whatever the number is #999999 that you are needing to note.
      6. If you click on the tab #999999 it will also show you code in the inspection window above something like :
        div class="XXXXX" id="999999" == $0

      You can click on with your mouse a couple of times on the "999999", and it should highlight JUST that number. You can then copy that number to your clip board. (ie. "Cntrl+C" ; or right mouse click, and on the pop up window select "copy")

      You are almost there

      You need to now make up your URL reference code. You have all the data.

      The code format you need to copy is:
      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/888888$comment_id%3D999999

      HOW DO YOU FIND A PAGE URL ?

      This still makes my eyes glaze over. I know I can do better.
      Feel free to post a better explanation. Including pictures is normally the way ;P


      return to top

      August 6, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      These links https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/888888$comment_id%3D999999 are not always working. Are there any solutions? I'm using Safari.

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      The %3D part of the address is just a URL escape code for the equals sign. As far as I'm aware, there's no reason to type %3D instead of just typing =. It just makes it more confusing and more likely to delete the wrong bit by accident.

      • ID number for this discussion page is 28284738
      • ID number for your comment is 33369802

      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=33369802

      If you paste that URL in a new tab, it should take you directly to that post?

      If the link is typed without any mistakes, the only guess I have as to why it might not work every time is maybe if the page has thousands of comments it takes a long time loading and ends up failing. Not sure if this does happen though.

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      It should be

      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=33369802.

      On Chrome this link opens correctly. Maybe it's a Safari problem.

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      Oops. Fixed. Thanks!

      Oh, right. I don't have a Mac so I can't test it in Safari.

      I tried a very out-of-date version of Safari on Windows 10 before (the final Windows version of Safari they made back in 2012...), but it didn't load many web pages correctly as it was so old. So there's probably no point me testing it in that. ^^;

      I take it you're on the latest version of Safari?

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      Yes I have latest macOS.

      July 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Inspiration and Challenge to Improve learning.

      With this knowledge, you can set about creating fantastic resources to expand and share language learning opportunities.

      If you have the skills, and want to see more stories in your target language ( the language you are learning ), with supporting documentation in your source language ( the language you know/are fluent in ). Also this would be useful for creating grammar resources.

      then the formatting information here can assist with that.

      Also don't forget about the resource of tinycards , and also create unique resources there to complement you resources you create in Duolingo forums.

      And of course to utilize other free resources, and provide links to them. Such as:

      So in effect, using Duolingo forums as a way to publish your resources and make them available to others.
      And also to have the chance for your resources to be reviewed by others, and also have the chance to empower others, and also find out about other resources that may be of interest to you.

      December 8, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253
      • Underline text
        Markdown code does not provide a syntax for underlined characters. This may be as underlined is reserved for hyperlinks, though this is just a guess on my behalf.

      Workarounds:

      a̲b̲c̲d̲e̲f̲g̲h̲i̲j̲k̲l̲m̲n̲o̲p̲q̲r̲s̲t̲u̲v̲w̲x̲y̲z̲0̲1̲2̲3̲4̲5̲6̲7̲8̲9̲ A̲B̲C̲D̲E̲F̲G̲H̲I̲J̲K̲L̲M̲N̲O̲P̲Q̲R̲S̲T̲U̲V̲W̲X̲Y̲Z̲

      Possible external references to convert text to underline :


      return to top

      February 18, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

      Header heading 5 does allow for underlining, but of course, it only works as a header, so one can't have underlined text and non-underlined text in the same line.

      #####Heading 5 at the beginning of a line produces

      Heading 5

      This does not work #####in the middle of a sentence

      Edit: Apparently header heading 5 uses underlining in Reddit (that's where I based my claim from) but not in Duolingo. I just tested all of the other headers (1 to 6) and none of them use underlining in Duolingo.

      Edit 2: Apparently it's called a "heading", not a "header".

      February 20, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Thanks for testing the limits out.
      Yes - different platforms have different variations of Markdown.
      And yes, it is worth checking things out. Also things change over time. Which is also why I have posted this Format Guide, so that I can keep it up to date.
      For also the expression of Markdown in Duolingo I have experienced changes over time.
      And some of the older guides to Formatting do not reflect these changes, nor cover all the options that I like to be able to have access to.

      February 20, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lisa4duolingo

      Thanks for mentioning the bit about "header" vs. "heading." I should have known the difference, but I, too, had been in the habit of using "header" when I really should have been using "heading." Thanks to you, I now know the difference. For anyone else who is still wondering, click on this:

      Rule 2: Don't confuse Headers and Headings

      April 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ThePepeLanguage

      Can you translate this to Spanish please?

      May 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      ohhhh this is a FANTASIC idea.
      And one of course worthy of a separate post, and one I will need to ask assistance for.

      Including I would suggest - that I should redesign this.
      I like this challenge.
      Also - to translate this into of course all our source languages.

      When I get something started, I will also comment back here.
      Or is someone else wants to take this on, could you comment back here, so as to highlight this resource.

      May 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      ok - I have started this work.
      You can see this here : https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/32411655

      Also - I will try to continue to simplify / create an improved simplification of the resources here also in English. Which will not just assist the quality of this post, but also enhance translations.

      It is also highly likely that I will be splitting this post up into separate posts, as this discussion is becoming cumbersome in its length and loading.

      Thank you for your patience as I do this, and I welcome also the valued input of the community. Though, I also reserve the right to make line ball calls based on my decisions. Yet will always support others creative and positive input and valuable critical comments that enhance improved creation of resources, including diversity of these resources (ie - different ways of also explaining things).

      May 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Hyllning

      Just saw this, thank you for the shoutout Linda <3

      I've updated my formatting guide to add strikethrough and embedded bullets because those didn't exist when I wrote mine. I'll stick with leaving the charts in here because of the monstrosity of posts I made back then when I exploited charts using CSS and they had to remove it.

      April 6, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      This is FANTASTIC news. Also it is FANTASTIC to hear from you.

      I 100% support your post and your work Hyllning.

      It is great way that so many people use your useful post as their primary key to be able to use formatting tools. For example - just read some of the comments here, as well as many other posts scattered through our forums.

      You are a very valued member of our community.
      Also I am so thrilled to hear from you. You are often in my thoughts.

      April 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      How to prevent auto hyperlinks from being generated

      In response to dogomolo's question:

      Can I prevent auto hyperlinks from being generated like ASP.NET?

      Try clicking these links:

      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738
      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738
      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738
      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738

      Here's how to do it:

      Result What to type?
      ASP.NET ASP.NET
      ASP.NET [color=#1cb0f6]ASP[/color][color=#1cb0f6].NET[/color]
      ASP.NET ASP[color=#4c4c4c].[/color]NET
      ASP.NET `ASP.NET`
      ASP.NET `[color=#1cb0f6]ASP[/color][color=#1cb0f6].NET[/color]`
      ASP.NET `ASP`[color=#4c4c4c]`.`[/color]`NET`

      Explanation:

      Basically, the .com .net .tv .co .uk .jp .internet (etc.) is the part which causes the site to think the text needs to be turned it into a clickable hyperlink (when these domain extensions follow directly after some other text without a space between them).

      To prevent this, all you need to do is somehow separate the first part of the text and the domain extension from eachother.

      Using spaces is the most obvious way to separate the text, but this is clearly not ideal:

      • asp . net
      • asp .net
      • asp. net

      The best way to do this is by changing the colour of the text either side of the dot or the colour of the dot itself (as I already demonstrated in the table above). To do this properly, it's best to use the same colour codes Duolingo forums uses for text:

      • #4c4c4c = Duolingo normal text colour
      • #1cb0f6 = Duolingo hyperlink colour

      However, there is actually an easier way to split the text up! Simply put the dot in italics. The only downside is that the dot will look very slightly different. However, unless people zoom in, no one's ever likely to notice. Here's how:

      Result What to type?
      ASP.NET ASP*.*NET
      https://www.duolingo.com https://www.duolingo*.*com
      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      One special case is links in part of a question. Like Duolingo.com? To prevent question mark to be part of the link, write Duolingo.com[color=#4c4c4c]?[/color].

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      Yep. I noticed this in your original comment. ^^

      I found it interesting that the question mark became /? rather than just ? in the url. I've no idea what the reason for it becoming /? is.

      But yeah, I came up with that same solution you mentioned:

      Write: Duolingo.com[color=#4c4c4c]?[/color]
      Result: Duolingo.com?

      Or you could do the following...

      Write: Duolingo.com[color=#1cb0f6]?[/color]
      Result: Duolingo.com?

      ...if for some reason you still want the question mark to look like part of the url but not actually be in the hyperlink. :P

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      How your code for Duolingo.com[color=#4c4c4c]?[/color] is produced without highlighting?

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dlhgl

      @daKanga

      Thanks for your excellent formatting guides!

      I created a condensed guide with links to your guides for more detailed explanations.

      Let me know what you think about it.

      If you prefer to maintain the condensed guide yourself I could also provide you with the code.

      August 12, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      This is FANTASTIC dlhgl !

      And I would prefer you to retain the maintenance of this, and also other resources. I wish to support you in the gifts you give to this world.

      Thank you for being SPECTACULAR.

      I will link to your resource from a collection of other posts.

      I LOVE living in a beautiful and healthy and diverse forest of many spectacular people.

      Thank you again for this GREAT gift.

      August 12, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253
      August 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobinB896941

      EDITED 19-29 Apr 2019
      For a while I've been working on this specimen Polish declension table, recalling how I learned German cases in secondary school; but I needed testmoogle's hints of 23 Apr 2019 01:13 UTC ff. to achieve it:

      Gender:
      Case
      masc.

      fem.

      neut.

      Nom.
       pl.
      człowiek
      ludzie
      kobieta
      kobiety
      dziecko
      dzieci
      Gen.
       pl.
      człowieka
      ludzi
      kobiety
      kobiet
      dziecka
      dzieci
      Dat.
       pl.
      człowiekowi
      ludziom
      kobiecie
      kobietom
      dziecu
      dzieciom
      Acc.
       pl.
      człowieka
      ludzi
      kobie
      kobiety
      dziecko
      dzieci
      Instr.
       pl.
      człowiekiem
      ludźmi
      kobie
      kobietami
      dzieckiem
      dziećmi
      Loc.
       pl.
      człowieku
      ludziach
      kobiecie
      kobietach
      dziecku
      dzieciach
      Voc.
       pl.
      człowieku
      ludzie
      kobieto
      kobiety
      dziecko
      dzieci

      Polish speakers will appreciate why I chose człowiek (with its odd plural ludzie) rather than the simpler – but grammatically feminine –mężczyzna.

      My full code:
      |Gender:[br]Case|masc.[br][br]|fem.[br][br]|neut.[br][br]| |:-|:-|:-|:-| |**Nom.**[br]* pl.*|[color=#]człowiek[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zie[/color]|[color=#]kobie[/color][color=Red]ta[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]ty[/color]|[color=#]dzie[/color][color=Red]cko[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]| |**Gen.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]a[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zi[/color]|kobiet[color=Red]y[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]t[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cka[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]| |**Dat.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]owi[/color][br]lud[color=Red]ziom[/color]|kobie[color=Red]cie[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]tom[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cu[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ciom[/color]| |**Acc.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]a[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zi[/color]|kobie[color=Red]tę[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]ty[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cko[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]| |**Instr.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]iem[/color][br]lud[color=Red]źmi[/color]|kobie[color=Red]tą[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]tami[/color]|dzie[color=Red]ckiem[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ćmi[/color]| |**Loc.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]u[/color][br]lud[color=Red]ziach[/color]|kobie[color=Red]cie[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]tach[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cku[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ciach[/color]| |**Voc.**[br]* pl.*|człowiek[color=Red]u[/color][br]lud[color=Red]zie[/color]|kobie[color=Red]to[/color][br]kobie[color=Red]ty[/color]|dzie[color=Red]cko[/color][br]dzie[color=Red]ci[/color]|

      • The white space which indents each * pl.* half-cell is an enspace (half the width of an emspace).
      • The Nom. line uses [color=#]black text[/color], the shortest possible coding (rather than the longer [color=#000]black text[/color] or the full-length [color=#000000]black text[/color]) to code for black text.
      • Likewise, [color=Red]red text[/color] is shorter than [color=#F00]red text[/color] or \[color=#FF0000]red text[/color] for red text.
      • As I continue editing, I'll insert a paragraph about short colour codes further down the Post.
      • If page width permits, I may later add a column of Polish case names to help me memorise them.

      How I got this far

      To prune this Post, I've removed my failed Tables and their example code, which provided little extra information. (If I've over-pruned, let me know: I've kept the cuttings.) Here's what I tried:

      1. Long single lines such as

        I Nom. man woman child  (pl.) men / women / childrenI

        in 7 columns (or just 5, with all 3 plurals in the 5th.) failed because Duo's ads eat 33% of my screen width, forcing arbitrary line breaks within words. So on the Forum I asked: "Are multi-line cells somehow possible??
        Though TheNecromancer recalled
        Ia Stack Exchange answer saying that it's not possible to have multi-I
        Iple lines in a cell with only Markdown, which is what Duolingo uses  I

        I recalled that
        Iif something is impossible, testmoogle tends to find a workaroundI

        – and I certainly wasn't disappointed this time, either!

      2. So my new aim was two-line cells (singular+plural of each case) which would halve the number of horizontal separator lines and reduce keep table height - but I couldn't guess how. Though I wrongly thought testmoogle's use of coloured text somehow produced the tidy line breaks I needed, my experiments revealed some unexpected tricks which shorten the code for multiple colour changes, as used in my above Table.


      My responses to your responses

      [My response, 22 Apr 2019 21:52 UTC
      – lightly ed. 23 Apr for better newline, nested lists & < > formatting]
      To keep down the number of posts, I've edited my full responses into this post. Then, so you know to look here, I'll trigger Duo's notification email by writing an brief extra post that I aim to delete shortly afterwards.

      @ testmoogle: Please can you edit your post to display a few lines of your table's code to help me understand how you achieved 3-line cells? My browser's Inspect shows only the HTML code - <br> for line break - without the DML code (usually [space][space][return]) that generated it. Your colour alternation is presumably essential, but none of my guesses - e.g. [shift][return] for line break - achieve your result.

      Your Table is rather more colourful than my plan to show black invariant word stems with red endings, so I devised the near-black DeepDeepGrey (used in my Nom. line), which can be alternated with itself by coding it variously as #010101, #000001, #000100, #010000 or even #000000 (true black). My practically indistinguishable variants differ by less than 0.4% from #000000. I find black text more legible than DuoForumGrey (approx. #4F4F4F = #555)...

      @ daKanga:

      1. Though DML is indeed fiddly and messy, your comprehensive DML Formatting Guide taught me its surprising versatility. I failed with
      2. <Paired pointy brackets> often have nasty side effects: part of the text they precede may be lost after saving and re-opening a post (so save your post in an external editor too!); and formatting further down the text may fail. In this post, the numbered list refused to terminate normally. [To be reworked]: the apparently normal blank line termination actually contains invisible text (_ _) to simulate normality. To suppress the worse effects, I 'imprison' < > _<_*like this*_>_<like this> by using italics – which can be neutralised only with the aid of extra spaces_*<*_ like this _*>*_< like this >. Appearance might be improved (whilst confusing anyone marking+copying the text!) by instead using the nearly invisible thinspace HTML Entity: mark & copy the (invisible!) special character from Wikipedia's table [/!\ As yet untested /!\]. Also, highlighted code isn't always what the editor showed. So < paired pointy brackets > are definitely not WYSIWYG, though I hope someone (testmoogle?) can turn their bugs into features...

      3. Short-code colours
        Perceived colours are 'optical illusions' resulting from the way the human brain processes signals from the eye's three different colour receptor types - Red, Green, Blue - to approximate the continuous spectrum of colours present in the natural world. Related colour illusions:
        1. Subtractive colours (computer printouts and photos, print media, catalogues, coloured objects) exist which have no exact additive colour (sunlight, artificial lighting; TV, computer, smartphone screens) equivalent.
        2. The near impossibility of reproducing colours identically in a supplier's online shop and the printed catalogue.
        3. Some clothing colours (e.g. maroon) appear different near the shop window (daylight), within the shop (fluorescent strip lighting), and - the greatest disappointment - at home (incandescent lighting, e.g. quartz-halogen spotlights).
        4. (2) and (3) help explain why so many remotely-ordered goods are returned to sender.
          1. Random item1
          2. Random item2
          • Random item3
      4. [= 3 cont.] People with colour blindness lack (usually) one colour receptor type, partially or entirely. Though my father's Red-Green colour blindness disqualified him from flying with the RAF (he instead joined REME, the Royal Engineers, for his military service), he could, after careful consideration (e.g. after viewing the coloured object in both artificial light and daylight), often distinguish between Reds and Greens, and might say "You'd probably call that Green". On the other hand he was unusually sensitive to slight nuances in the Turquoise (Cyan) - Blue - Grey region, and became very annoyed whenever "the Blue-Grey colourblind", as he called us, used 'imprecise' names for such colours. After he'd admonished me and I'd viewed the object in both kinds of light too, I could often 'sort of' see the difference, though I had no precise name for the colour.

        Different Blue receptors - enhanced colour vision. → Painter noted for her unusually vivid blue colours.
        [to be continued...]
      Saturated ¾ saturated ½ saturated
      ██ #F00 Red
      ██ #FA0 Orange
      ██ #FF0 Yellow
      ██ #0F0 Green
      ██ #0FF Cyan
      ██ #00F Blue
      ██ #F0F Violet
      ██ #B00 Red
      ██ #B70 Orange
      ██ #BB0 Yellow
      ██ #0B0 Green
      ██ #0BB Cyan
      ██ #00B Blue
      ██ #B0B Violet
      ██ #700 Red
      ██ #750 Orange
      ██ #770 Yellow
      ██ #070 Green
      ██ #077 Cyan
      ██ #007 Blue
      ██ #707 Violet
        16 Shades of Grey
      ██ #FFF White
      ██ #EEE
      ██ #DDD Quotes
      ██ #CCC
      ██ #BBB
      ██ #AAA
      ██ #999
      ██ #888
      ██ #777
      ██ #666
      ██ #555 DuoText
      ██ #444
      ██ #333
      ██ #222
      ██ #111
      ██ #000 #0 # Black
      1. [= 4.] White Space On saving a post, Duo 'kindly' replaces most standard multiple spaces with single ones, but DML – and other forum types - often overlook special white space characters. My favourites (mark + copy between the ◂markers▸):
      White space equivalent to mark + copy
      emspace
      enspace
      emsp13
      emsp14
      thinspace
      hairspace

      ½ emspace
      ⅓ emspace
      ¼ emspace


      ◂ ▸
      ◂ ▸
      ◂ ▸
      ◂ ▸
      ◂ ▸
      ◂ ▸

      White space must sometimes be italicised (and even alternated between *italics* and _italics_), e.g. to stop Duo removing it before a line's first non-space character. Before discovering your comprehensive DML course I used white space extensively, and still often prefer it when e.g. indenting lines of a poem, where the vertical grey 'quote' lines look messy. Here's how I coded my first Polish poem (composed entirely of expressions from Duo's Polish course) and my English version:

      **  MAŁE OPOWIADANIE**

      *  *Mówię: Jestem cały twój!
      *  *Ona mówi: Kocham cię...
      *       *... jak brata.
      *  *
      *  *Jestem cały... smutny.

      *     *~~~~~

      **  SHORT STORY**

      *  *I say: I'm all yours!
      *  *She says: I love you.
      *      * Like a brother.
      *  *
      *  *I'm all – sad.

      *  * ~ Robin B. Jones © 25.01.2018

      1. [= 5.] Please feel free to edit anything useful from my post into your main Guide. Possible headings:
        • Pointy brackets: a health warning
        • White Space
      2. [= 6.] Readers often need to mark & copy text from tables, so I prefer to avoid spreadsheet screenshots.

      3. [= 7.] Thanks for the surprise ◂◼▸ Lingots :-)

      [Created 16 Apr 2019 14:26 UTC; last ed. 01 Sep 2019 17:59 UTC]

      April 16, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      Closing pointy brackets shouldn't cause any problems when posted in Duolingo discussions. Afaik, only the opening ones are problematic. A nicer looking fix might be to simply put an empty code block immediately after all opening pointy brackets:

      <` `like this>

      <like this>

      The formatting language used on Duolingo is "Markdown". The following couple of webpages are good guides for its syntax:

      https://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/syntax
      https://github.com/adam-p/markdown-here/wiki/Markdown-Cheatsheet


      Back to the tables. My trick actually has nothing to do with using colours. I only added the colours as an afterthought, thinking it might look nice. ^^

      Here's the same table but before I added any colour formatting to it:

      Gend. →
      Case ↓
      m. f. n. pl.
      Nom.‌ człowiek ludzie kobieta dziecko ludzie
      kobiety
      dzieci
      Gen. człowieka row 3 row 3 ludzi
      ?
      ?
      Dat. człowiekowi row 4 row 4 ludziom
      ?
      ?
      Acc. człowieka row 2 row 2 ludzi
      ?
      ?
      Instr. człowiekiem row 5 row 5 ludźmi
      ?
      ?
      Loc. człowieku row 6 row 6 ludziach
      ?
      ?
      Voc. człowieku row 7 row 7 ludzie
      ?
      ?

      How did I do it then? The thing I'm using isn't part of standard Markdown at all, so you won't find it in any syntax guides. And I've also never seen anyone mention this thing in the Duolingo forums either - not in any of the various formatting guide threads!

      The only time I've ever mentioned this secret formatting code myself was a year ago, when I was helping somone in the following thread:
      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/25563745

      Posting about it here, I guess this secret will be coming to an end... So I might as well also provide the exact code I used for producing the above table. ^^


      |Gend. →[br]Case ↓|m.|f.|n.|pl.|
      |:-|:-|:-|:-|:-|
      |Nom.‌|człowiek ludzie|kobieta|dziecko|ludzie[br]kobiety[br]dzieci|
      |Gen.|człowieka|row 3|row 3|ludzi[br]?[br]?|
      |Dat.|człowiekowi|row 4|row 4|ludziom[br]?[br]?|
      |Acc.|człowieka|row 2|row 2|ludzi[br]?[br]?|
      |Instr.|człowiekiem|row 5|row 5|ludźmi[br]?[br]?|
      |Loc.|człowieku|row 6|row 6|ludziach[br]?[br]?|
      |Voc.|człowieku|row 7|row 7|ludzie[br]?[br]?|

      April 23, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      ohhhhhh WOW

      You can use break row code command ! ie. [br]

      Are there any other codes that work in Duolingo's current version of markdown code, either in a table, or for other purposes ?

      Thank you testmoogle for this revelation :D

      April 23, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ThePepeLanguage

      May you translate it for Spanish? Thanks!

      May 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle
      Gend. →
      Case ↓
      m. f. n. pl.
      Nom. człowiek ludzie kobieta dziecko ludzie
      kobiety
      dzieci
      Gen. człowieka row 3 row 3 ludzi
      ?
      ?
      Dat. człowiekowi row 4 row 4 ludziom
      ?
      ?
      Acc. człowieka row 2 row 2 ludzi
      ?
      ?
      Instr. człowiekiem row 5 row 5 ludźmi
      ?
      ?
      Loc. człowieku row 6 row 6 ludziach
      ?
      ?
      Voc. człowieku row 7 row 7 ludzie
      ?
      ?
      April 18, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      ohhh - I like what you have done there testmoogle as well as what RobinB896941 is doing.

      edited: though as it also highlights - what you can do within Duolingo's current markdown is not as neat as what many of us would like.

      The only other way around this is to create a "picture" of the spreadsheet, and to then load it up to the internet and then link to the image within Duolingo.

      Further edited: [ UTC 22 April 2019 23:26 ]
      I have read your reply below. I have a full day of other commitments, but I will double back here when I get time in my life and also show you some other code and results, of course based on your work. And I hope we may find out some other ways to improve tables.

      NB: no apologies needed :D

      April 19, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobinB896941

      @ testmoogle, daKanga, TheNecromancer:
      To avoid creating new posts, I've replied in full by editing my original post. If you wish to do so, please respond there (or edit your previous replies, as appropriate): I aim to delete this brief summary post in a few hours after it's triggered Duo's notification email and let you know I've posted something new, and where.

      @ testmoogle: Please can you edit your post to display a few lines of your table's code to help me understand how you achieved 3-line cells? My browser's Inspect doesn't reveal your full secret; I still cannot guess how to do it.

      @ daKanga: Apologies for my lengthy response (the 'tail' of my original post)! You or others can, I hope, improve/shorten anything useful I wrote.

      [22 Apr 2019 21:52 UTC]


      [23 Apr 2019 12:32 UTC]
      /!\ Please don't comment directly on this Post! /!\
      I plan to delete [some parts] after using it as a Sandbox to rebuild my Table using testmoogle's recent hints!

      [Update 24 Apr 2019 23:18 UTC]
      Now my Table works as planned, I've moved it to the top of my main post where it has more "elbow room", and added its source coding.


      [SANDBOX 1.0, 29 Apr 2019 23:52 UTC]

      Poem as Table:

      SHORT STORY
      I say:
      She says:




      ~ Robin B. Jones ©
      "I'm all yours!"
      "I love you.
      Like a brother."

      I'm all – sad.

      25.01.2018

      Short-code colours

      Offcut

      ██ #FFF White|██(sp) DuoForumGrey|██ # Black|

      Other useful 'colours'

      • ██ # = #0 = #000 = #000000 Black
      • ██ #4F4F4F ForumGrey (approx.)
      • ██ #555555 ForumGrey
      • ██ #555 ForumGrey
      • ██ color= [space] defaults to ForumGrey
      • ██ color= [most non-# entries] = Black
      • ██ #FFF = white - mark this line to see it! ;-)

      Test leftovers

      ██ Colour short codes

      These two don't achieve [color=#nnn]... [/color] formatting, and can mess up subsequent text:

      • [color]██ [color] Nasty? [/color]
      • [color=]██ [color=] Nasty! [/color]

      ██ [color= ] defaults to ForumGrey
      ██ # = Black
      ██ #0 = Black
      ██ #F = Black (!Red)
      ██ #FF = Black (!Red, !Yellow)
      ██ #FFFFFF = invisible

      ██ #101010 = Black
      ██ #FFFF = Yellow
      ██ #FFFFF = invisibleMark to see!

      ██ #0F = Black
      ██ #0F0 = Green
      ██ #0FFF = Green
      ██ #0FFFF = Cyan
      ██ #0FFFFF = Cyan

      [back=#0FF]██ back #0FF = Cyan[/back]

      I- >[HorTab] + Line of text

      [Begun 22 Apr 2019 21:52 UTC
      Last ed. 1 Sep 2019 18:29 UTC]

      April 22, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

      I remember seeing a Stack Exchange answer saying that it's not possible to have multiple lines in a cell with only Markdown, which is what Duolingo uses. I can't find the link to the post with that comment though.

      April 17, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Please, I ask you to not delete this. I still read the information and resources you are sharing with us here RobinB896941.
      I am also establishing a separate post on the issue of using colors in text in Duolingo here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/32429295
      And I would also like to encourage and support you to put appropriate information from here, on the post there.

      And also, given more time, I will also find the resources to restructure and post your information in a different way of presenting it. But please - I will always recognize your input. And also welcome your input on discussions.

      Again, thank you for sharing with this community the great gifts you have.

      June 1, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/lisa4duolingo

      So, if you wanted to do a centered, two-column table it would look like this:

      |English|Spanish|
      |:|:|
      |row|fila|
      |column|columna|
      |table|tabla|

      English Spanish
      row fila
      column columna
      table tabla

      And if you wanted to add formatting you could do this:

      English Spanish
      colored coloreado
      shaded sombreado
      italicized en cursiva
      bolded en negrito

      I see now that what I've done is very simple next to what others are doing, but it's good to apply what you've learned to see if you really understand the instructions and/or combine that with other code you've learned. Again, thank you for this post on how to color text with code. Your comments are super helpful.

      April 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobinB896941

      /!\ SANDBOX 2.0 /!\ Nerd at work - please just totally ignore this post...

      256 Shades of Blue (#000000 – #0000FF)
      bisected by white diagonal to the right of shades with exact 16-shade (short code) equivalents

      F0██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ █FF
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██FF  #00F
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██EE  ██ #00E
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██DD ██ ██ #00D
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██CC  ██ ██ ██ #00C

      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██BB  ██ ██ ██ ██ #00B
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██AA  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #00A
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██99  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #009
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██88  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #008

      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██77  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #007
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██66  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #006
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██55  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #005
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██44  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #004

      ██ ██ ██ ██33  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #003
      ██ ██ ██22  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #002
      ██ ██11  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #001
      ██00  ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #000
      00██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██0F

      16*4 Shades of YRGB + 16 Shades of Grey
      Blue ≡ main diagonal (#000 – #00F)
      of the above 256-shade (#000000 – #0000FF) chart

      000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 00F
      000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 0F0
      000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ F00
      000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ FF0
      ––– —– —– —– ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ??? Marker Yellow
      000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ FFF

      16 * 16 Shades of Yellow (000 – FF0)
      Shades with (R = G) lie on the (000 – FF0) diagonal.

      F0██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ █FF
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ FF0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ EF0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ DF0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ CF0

      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ BF0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ AF0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 9F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 8F0

      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 7F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 6F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 5F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 4F0

      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 3F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 2F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 1F0
      ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ 0F0
      00██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ █0F


      Image Links - Test

      Possible seed for a DML Cheat Sheet

      Alt. text = Alternative text invisible to most users, but which:
      (1) is read out loud by TTS screen reader software for the blind & visually impaired, who will appreciate an accurate description of the image contents; (2) appears on screen instead of the image if its URL is broken.

      • Basic: ![](Image URL)
      • Alt. text: !["Alt. text"](Image URL)
      • Clickable:
        • [![](Image URL)](URL redirect)
        • [!["Alt. text"](Image URL)](URL redirect)

      "Duo Design: current Lingot image" [current Lingot image] - (https://d35aaqx5ub95lt.cloudfront.net/images/icons/lingot.svg)

      Duo's link refuses to display its current Lingot image here!
      This link to Duo's Lingot image as archived on 27 Jul 2017 fails too :(

      "Instagram" - Instagram

      "Twitter - Guess Who? II" Twitter: Guess Who? II

      X Maui_Bartlett (7 May 2019 01:41-02:22) Highlighted, italicized text:

      1. _highlighted_
      2. highlighted?
      3. Yes! _highlighted_ ⇒ highlighted

      Naughty White Space (from Dessert-Rose):

      <pre> - 20 leading spaces </pre>

      Undocumented clickable text: URL Very Short Link to Forum Reply

      • [This very reply](/comment/28284738$comment_id=32009251)] and
      • [This very reply](28284738$comment_id=32009251)] [/comment/omitted]

      both link to This very reply at
      https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=32009251
      (discovered by forgetting the / before comment/...).


      Weird Effects - Test

      ...(|ensp|3...|emsp|...)4

      <h1>000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #0F0</h1>

      ...(|emsp14|3...|emsp|...)4

      <h1>000 ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ ██ #0F0</h1>

      ...(|nosp|3...|emsp|...)4

      <h1>000 ████████ ████████ ████████ ████████ #0F0</h1>


      So why does this happen? - Simplified examples:

      <h1>Unformatted 'heading'
      </h1>

      Code: #Unformatted 'heading'

      <h1>Red 'heading'
      </h1>

      Code: #[color=#F00]Red 'heading'[/color]


      Unformatted Level 1 Heading

      Code: ##Unformatted Level 1 Heading


      Red Level 1 Heading

      Code: ##[color=#F00]Red Level 1 Heading[/color]


      0-col. short-coded Table (⇒ centred title)
      From: Formatting Codes for Duolingo
      14. A LEVEL - by Dessert-Rose, 5 Jun 2018
      cf. 1-col. full-coded Table (⇒ title + text left-justified)
      cf. Formatting Codes for Duolingo
      14. A LEVEL - by Dessert-Rose, 5 Jun 2018

      [Created 3 May 2019 UTC; last ed. 9 Jun 2019 01:18 UTC]

      May 3, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Gosh I like your work RobinB896941

      Just to share ideas, here I am using a spreadsheet to help create my tables.

      https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1YaB_P9JpxBRWAKHTSRfWiv2xLOmjmeHVvCCDvmyDOIE/edit?usp=sharing

      To see how this example table is rendered, you can check out:
      [Guide] Help Resources - in other languages

      I have not got my head around how to explain why this is such a powerful tool. But I thought it may be of interest to you.

      May 3, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dessert-Rose

      Hey Linda, you said we can add colors to a table? Do you mean give the tables (gray, white, gray, white) another alternating color group (e.g. pink, blue, pink, blue)? :D AP4418

      January 17, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      To a table, you can have the writing in the table shown in different colors.

      Green Red Banana
      blue Banana blue

      Or change the color of every letter in a sentence.

      Though it is a hefty amount of coding.


      Code for the table above

      |[color=#7AC70C]Green[/color]|[color=#D33131]Red[/color]|[color=#FFB020]Banana[/color] |:-:|:-:|:-:| |[color=#1CB0F6]blue[/color]|[color=#FFB020]Banana[/color]|[color=#1CB0F6]blue[/color]|

      Code for the sentence

      [color=#7AC70C]O[/color][color=#D33131]r [/color][color=#FFB020]c[/color][color=#1CB0F6]h[/color][color=#7AC70C]a[/color][color=#D33131]n[/color][color=#FFB020]g[/color][color=#1CB0F6]e[/color] [color=#7AC70C]the[/color] [color=#D33131]color[/color] of every letter in a [color=#FFB020]sentence.[/color]

      February 18, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dessert-Rose

      Thank you!

      February 18, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      This all makes me think ... you could develop a spreadsheet that would assist in reducing the time taken in coding ..... hmmmm ... If I create it, I will share it here for people to copy. Or perhaps someone else might like to create it.

      Also, it is always a pleasure to chat with you ❀Amy❀

      February 18, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobinB896941

      Your impressive new task(s) – editing your long GUIDE into several short sections and translating it into Spanish – sound(s) like a lot of work! To (hopefully) make it easier, here some thoughts which I may yet post in detail in my usual place later. Though I began writing this on 1 Jun 2019 (in an editor rather than gradually building it on the forum), unexpected interruptions kept me from posting sooner. Since posting I've edited out all mistakes I could find, but please alert me to broken links, poorly-explained ideas etc.

      1. Very short internal links – No /comment/ !
        In DML, all these link to the (your!) same comment:
        1. [Clickable text](28284738$comment_id=32411944)
        2. [Clickable text](/comment/28284738$comment_id=32411944)
        3. [Clickable text](https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=32411944)

          Likewise, these page links (here: to your Guide) are all equivalent:
        4. [Clickable text](28284738)
        5. [Clickable text](/comment/28284738)
        6. [Clickable text](https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738)

          No longer working:
        7. Hyllning's trick posted on 16 Jan 2016:
          [username](/username) now tries (and fails) to redirect to https://forum.duolingo.com/username,
          not to (https://www.duolingo.com/profile/username) where Duo currently puts user profiles.
          However, (https://www.duolingo.com/username) redirects correctly.

      2. Stretchy scrolling – Mid March I began Spanish, but stopped after clicking De nada's Discussion link, which displays just the first 10 of (currently) 364 posts. To see the rest I had to press [ctrl][end], wait 2 seconds, and repeat the cycle 37 times – too much for most users, who fail to read older posts and re-ask a FAQ which I and others have repeatedly answered, sidelining my Spanish learning...
        Any valid comment link, e.g. from a Forum email notification, loads the full page in one go. But deleting the reply after Duo sends the email invalidates its comment_id; just the first 10 posts appear.

      3. Stretchy scrolling isn't an issue in your current English [GUIDE] Formatting in Duolingo despite (currently) 132 comments: clicking any item in your "List of contents" automatically opens up the entire page. As that's only an option for a Topic's original author: are sticky comments possible (for Mods at least), or only the sticky topics used in the main Duo Forums? My De nada FAQ has risen only to post ~25 of 364, where it's still invisible to the learners who most need it, so I'd really like to put a multiple-choice sticky comment near the top of the page.
        UPDATE 3 Sep 2019 13:50 UTC – On the De nada page I've now posted a non-sticky working version of the multiple-choice comment below; it's still depressingly low on the page. Maybe a few kindly Spanish learners will upvote it…
      De nada – Your question may already have been answered:
      • For explanations of what De nada means, <click and read> before asking.
      • To learn why your, you're and you are differ in English, <click here>.
      • Maybe another user had a similar question. <Click> to browse the full page, and Find your keyword(s) (Ctrl-F in most browsers) to ask there.
      • If you consider that Duo wrongly rejects your translation, <click here>.
      • If Duo doesn't recognise your pronunciation, <ask here>.
      • If all else fails, please ask your new question at the very top of this page, just above this post.
      1. [=4. – Tables break numbered lists! ] Short colour codes
        • The 16 gradations per primary colour of short #RGB codes instead of full #RrGgBb codes (256 gradations) usually suffice for text, though a photo might need far more.
          That said, the yellow area at the top right of my short-code Red-Green colour chart hints that some composite text colours need full codes for accurate representation.
        • The identical bright red hue is represented by #F00 and #FF0000.
          Other identical pairs: #200 = #220000; #300 = #330000; #100 = #110000; ... #E00 = #EE0000.
      2. [=5.] Translating English to Spanish – In a previous life I was a technical translator (science; technology; user manuals) from 2nd. language (German) to 1st. language (English). Machine-assisted translation was then slow, poor and costly – not a viable option. Nowadays, to get a messy raw 'translation' that's quicker to edit rather than translating from scratch, I'd use Google Translate in two ways (whilst bearing in mind that Google stores our texts indefinitely, ostensibly to improve translation quality):

        1. In Google's Chrome browser – or in Chromium, the open-source variant for Linux-based OS – right-click the main text area of a web page and follow the instructions. On the Polish reverse tree this helps me understand Forum pages in Polish.
          Other browsers can do this too, notably Firefox (with one of several Google Translate add-ons), my only testable (i.e. installed) alternative.

        2. Open two adjacent tabs in your browser of choice:

          1. To translate English to Spanish
            Copy+paste max. 5 000 keystrokes of your English source text into this tab's LH window; press <return>.
            If the rough translation doesn't appear in the tab's RH window, refresh the page (your source text remains in its LH window).
            Copy+paste the result into your favourite editor or word processor, and correct it as needed.

          2. To translate Spanish to English
            Use this tab to reverse-test your own attempts in the target language.
            You could instead click to reverse translation direction in the first tab, but it overwrites your English source with a garbled reverse translation from Google's attempt at Spanish.
            This effect can be used for an onscreen solitaire version of Chinese Whispers: type a source-language sentence (e.g. The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak) in the LH window, click maybe 10-20 times until the sentence remains constant (or cycles through a small list of variants) in both windows, and compare the result with your input.

      3. [=6.] What I'll not delete – Don't worry (1 Jun 2019 14:43 UTC): I won't delete anything other than unsuccessful junk; I'll just move some things eventually. If unsure, I'll cross out bits that now seem irrelevant, leaving them visible. Once something works well in my older Sandbox 1.0 or my wider Sandbox 2.0 I'll move it to its proper place within my rather long main post. I might then move Sandbox 1.0 leftovers to Sandbox 2.0. My original intention – to delete emptied Sandboxes and re-create (triggering a notification email) for new tests – is out of the question now that both have attracted attention (including links) so in the sandboxes, I now aim to leave just links to good stuff moved elsewhere.

      4. [=7.] Colour perception – Colour charts
        • My experimental colour charts are for my unfinished section on colour perception.
        • I may well move the finished section, the longest section of my long main post, to your new, separate Color Topic.
        • My preference would have been for you to incorporate my better ideas into your Topic(s) as you re-write them (in which case I'd post/email my full code, as needed), putting related material at the top of each page (and ideally on the same screen), but I'm sure we can agree a best procedure.
      5. [=8.] Thanks for your GUIDE! – Some of my newer posts – DML Tables; Truly Black Text; Modal Auxiliary Verbs – would have been impossible or very messy without your and testmoogle's help. The Top 4 long-needed Tips (which also help tidy up my old work):
        1. Exact comment URLs via browser's right-click Inspect function, which will save me much unnecessary work:
          Over the past 2 years, learning Polish has often made me reflect on my UK English in various Forum comments which I'd like to unite to a [GUIDE] UK English so that I (and others) can easily find, edit and link to my better answers rather than re-inventing the wheel each time I post on the same subject.
          Before finding your [GUIDE] I thought I'd need to re-post Comments as new Topics to get exact URLs if I'd no nearby comment_id from a Duo email notification.
          Some day I may take up your challenge to write my own HowTo version (for Chromium/Chrome & Firefox)…
        2. Embedded URL (clickable text)
        3. Nested lists
        4. testmoogle's tamed line breaks

      6. [=9.] Forum or Blog?LICA98 would apparently prefer you to put your entire GUIDE in one place, e.g. an external blog, but your method has many advantages:
        • It's written in the exact extended DML subset it describes.
        • Effects of any Forum software changes show up immediately.
        • It's highly interactive: it's frequently updated by its users and ultimately by you.
      7. [=10.] Terminology – May I suggest changes to the terminology (maybe adopted from a famous Nordic author ;) ) you use in a couple of titles?
        • Standard HTML uses <ol> = Ordered Lists, often known as Numbered Lists; and <ul> = Unordered Lists (Bulleted Lists), with Bullets instead of numbers. Bullets are just the circular black dots ( • ) which introduce each Unordered List item (as in the list you're reading), and is a misnomer in your Bullets title, which needs renaming Lists (or maybe Ordered and Unordered Lists).
        • Nested lists seems to be the standard name (cf. Nested brackets; Nested quotes) for what you call Embedded lists (which sounds like something else – cf. Embedded code or Embedded links, which feel right).
        • Headings is the usual HTML name for what you call Titles.
        • Though I'm familiar with ASCII/ANSI faces, I expected Text faces to be about Typefaces or Fonts (invariable in DML?). So maybe Text-based faces?
      8. [=11.] Home-made timestamps – In most forums with no [post's URL] symbol near the username, the post's URL is right-click copiable from the timestamp. Duo's Forum mouseover timestamps are uncopiable, invisible in some browsers and on ?all smartphones, and degrade to date stamps after 24h. So I manually timestamp posts needed later, especially larger 'wheels' I never want to reinvent.
        Though I'd prefer a strictly logical high…low order format (cf. numbers) such as YYYY.MM.DD hh:mm:ss.ms, I use DD Mth Year hh:mm:ss (closer to UK, USA and German formats), in UTC to aid time zone conversions.
        My private convention: UTC. indicates a timestamp whose comment_id I must yet add: [timestamp UTC.](28284738$comment_id=LINK0)

      9. [=12.] Features DML still needs
        • Tagged section headings (cf. Wikipedia)
        • Background colour [backcolor=][/backcolor]
        • Short username links [username](/username)
      10. [=13.] Errata – At the top of your Formatting GUIDE and of your new [GUIDE] Duo emoji, some of your imgur.com links are broken.

      11. [=14.] I enjoy our international cooperation across the continents. But Duo discontinued Forum PM on 19 Apr 2017 and discourages users from publicly posting anything that could help spammers etc. pinpoint user identity, so if you ever wish to exchange email addresses, ask me to post my Twitter (my favourite), Facebook, LinkedIn or Skype ID somewhere on the Forum. All four media have inter-member Private Messaging.
                                             [Created 2 Sep 2019 09:59 UTC; last ed. 10 Sep 2019 08:54 UTC]
      September 2, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Arachnje

      The ~~Strikethrough~~ code is another handy trick to add to the list. Oh, and could you please also add the code for the superscript format you used in the footnotes? Thank you.

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      WOW ! I did not know about ~~Strikethrough~~ Now added to the top. Thank you.

      For the "superscript" - I used Titles

      So as
      this , i.e.##this
      becomes

      this , i.e.##this

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Arachnje

      Oh, I meant how you managed, for instance, to make number 4 look small (like a superscript) in this footnote:

      ⁴ ON SOME PLATFORMS, YOUR [>] COULD NOT SHOW UP. JUST EDIT YOUR POST BY REPLACING THOSE AGAIN AND IT SHOULD FIX TO BECOME CORRECT QUOTES.

      Interesting! I copied and pasted your footnote and the number remained in the superscript format.

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      ahhh - good point.

      Check out https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII

      I will also ponder how to describe this in a better way, and perhaps add a section on this.

      Also things such as: https://lingojam.com/SuperscriptGenerator

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      I also sometimes use a word editor, such as Google Documents, to get the symbols I want to incorporate.

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Arachnje

      Thanks! ^_^

      By the way, these two codes used to do the trick, but they don't seem to work anymore, that's why I was wondering if there's another way.

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      My researching on this challenge has led me for find out all sorts of interesting information. Some of it I will be able to use on resources for language specific keyboard functions. So thank you for this question.

      To the best of my knowledge and comprehension, for the standard character set for letters available through Alt codes, the superscript and subscript of all numbers is not available.
      There is superscript available in Alt code for the numbers ¹ ² ³ only.

      # Alt codes
      ¹ 7419 ; 0185
      ² 7421 ; 253 ; 0178
      ³ 7420 ; 0179

      Other than using word processes such as Google documents or Open office, etc., you could use things like :

      Here also is the output for numbers, that you can also copy and paste from here:

      | ⁰ ¹ ² ³ ⁴ ⁵ ⁶ ⁷ ⁸ ⁹
      | ₀ ₁ ₂ ₃ ₄ ₅ ₆ ₇ ₈ ₉

      August 4, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Santiago_Guzman_

      September 19, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/TheNecromancer10

      Hello lindakanga! I'm currently working on a project, and I think you would like to contribute to it. It's a collection of phrases that can often come in handy when browsing the Duolingo forums. If you would like to contribute, please tell me the username of your Reddit account. If you don't have a Reddit account but would still like to contribute, please make an account and tell me the name of it.

      February 20, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

      WOW!!!! THANK YOU SO MUCH!!! This is very helpful! I had a problem but now it's fixed!

      June 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

      highlight

      June 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

      Wow that's cool!

      June 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

      Bold is bold. Highlighted.Strike.Italic..._very fancy!

      June 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/toggitang4

      ***What will dis do? (just a test)***

      June 8, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Badry21

      --------------------------
      --------------------------
      --------------------------
      --------------------------
      --------------------------
      --------------------------
      --------------------------

      July 26, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      Can I prevent auto hyperlinks from being generated like ASP.NET?

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      Your mean like ASP.NET ? ^^

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      Yes I mean that. How you did it?

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      I actually commented how to do this a year ago here in this thread already. It's the comment where I talk about "how to make non-clickable links".

      Here's a link to jump to that specific comment here in this thread:

      forum.duolingo.com/comment/28284738$comment_id=28297218

      However, I was a bit crypic in the way I explained it. People using mobile devices probably can't even read the text I marked as *spoiler*, since in mobile browser view mode Duolingo doesn't let you highlight text on the page. I think I'll make a new comment explaining it clearer. I'll post a new comment detailing how to do it in a few minutes. ^^

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      You are quite clever :) You should write your own comprehensive formatting guide.

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      Thanks. I think daKanga's guide is great already, although it would be nice to make a much more condensed yet still comprehensive guide. ^^

      I've now posted that new comment I said I was going to, explaining more clearly everything about non-clickable links:

      /comment/28284738$comment_id=33369036

      Sorry it took me a lot longer than I said. I got carried away messing around with stuff in my post. :P

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      testmoogle, I would support and recommend you making posts.
      And ALSO others making posts.
      And linking posts you make to and from other significant posts.

      I agree, I would love to see posting a more condensed yet still comprehensive guide.

      You will notice, I am also splitting up some of the topics in this very long post - to assist them to be found, while always being respectful and connecting to the amazing contributions by others.

      We are greater, when with respect, we are a community that seeks excellence in what we do.

      August 11, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/YankeeDoodleDany

      His reply is still a clickable link in email

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      Oh? That's very interesting to know. I thought this might be the case, but didn't know for certain. Thanks!

      It's a shame I didn't get an email for my own comment to see it myself. I'm going to have to experiment sometime with how to prevent the hyperlink being generated in the email too.

      Sometimes I actually already post a different edited version of my comment at first, to prevent content that won't display well in email format from appearing. Then, I edit the comment immediately afterwards and paste the full original unedited version I wanted to appear in the forums. So I could come up with a different way to have unclickable links for the email version of my comment, then edit it to the version that's unclickable for the forums afterwards. :D

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/W-Ruggles-Wolfe

      Sigh. I can't figure out how to get pointy brackets to display in the forums. How do I get this done? I've not been able to find the correct section of this post to solve the issue.

      I.e, how to make this display correctly:

      Dealing with the missing "<" before "prosody>" and "/prosody>" in the below. (And maybe it's something i'll have to do for both < and >??)

      prosody rate="65%">il et elle, ils et elles /prosody>

      Many thanks.

      September 1, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RobinB896941

      Right pointy brackets are well behaved (as you already know).
      Left pointy brackets need coaxing into good behaviour. The neatest way has been explained by testmoogle: type <` ` (in words: "Left pointy bracket – grave accent – space – grave accent") wherever you need a left pointy bracket. The grave – space – grave sequence effectively generates an invisible space that keeps the left pointy bracket on its best behaviour. So you type:

      <` `prosody rate="65%"> il et elle, ils et elles <` `/prosody>
      to get
      <prosody rate="65%"> il et elle, ils et elles </prosody>

      [Sun 1 Sep 2019 20:03 UTC.]

      September 1, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/W-Ruggles-Wolfe

      Many thanks.

      I had tried the "grave accent – space – grave accent" and it didn't seem to work. Though I'm slightly dyslexic so it's very possible that I had made a small typo/error. (It wouldn't be the first time.) One of the joys of my life is that I can stare/study a sentence/phrase for a very long time and not see my error. So it goes.

      Many thanks.

      September 1, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/W-Ruggles-Wolfe

      D'oh! Answered my own question.

      Altcodes 0060; and 0062;

      September 1, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

      How to make it bold inside a yellow highlight?

      September 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kripik_Pedas

      **`Here`** –> Here

      September 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      ​ But ​​ can ​​ you ​​ do ​​ something​ like ​​ this? ​​ :P ​

      Also, ​see​ this ​similar ​comment​ I posted in this thread two months ago. ^^

      September 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/nskutt

      Thank you for this! I appreciate the update posts on these kind of subjects so that it gets put to the top of my 'followed' list.

      August 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kenzoku-san

      Very helpful!

      August 4, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Maughanster_

      Thanks so much, Roo! :)

      August 6, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Also to you Maughanster_ ,

      I see we are all in this together.
      I also like diversity and empowering people to also contribute. ( as well as helping me to live up a bit closer to my expectations for me. )

      I hope you have fun putting this to good use, for your own learning, and perhaps also to create resources for others.

      August 6, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/steelnothing

      Thank you just did my first post with italics

      Bryan

      August 26, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/nekonekokoneko

      Hi Lindakanga, thanks for thia excellent post. I have a question on the formatting to use in the Duolingo Club page. In particular, how to insert a link in the commentary (reply) box.

      We can insert a clickable link (eg. https://duome.eu) in the top box to create a new thread without using text.

      However we can't do the same in the commentary (reply) box. We tried to see if text works, but this was unsuccessful.

      Hope the above make sense and we really appreciate your advice. Many thanks,

      August 7, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Hi there nekonekokoneko,

      I am glad you are also finding this reference is empowering you. I will go do some investigations, and if necessary will fill out a bug report.
      And also report back here.

      Just to let also everyone know, if you notice things wrong, it is well worth checking out help to cross check any query you might have first.
      Also, in relation to suspected problems to check I found a bug/cannot find an answer to my question.

      Based on what you describe above, does sound like a bug, and will probably require a bug report to be filled out.

      I will keep you in the know - but it might take me a little time, also depending on my private life commitments. But don't stress, I will get around to it.

      August 7, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/nekonekokoneko

      Hi Lindakanga, thanks for your prompt attention. This matter is not urgent so please take your time :)

      August 7, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/samsheehy10

      how do you do that? do you just write it?

      January 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      Hi samsheehy10,
      I am not understanding what you are asking about.
      Could you give a bit more information of what aspect of formatting you are curious about ?

      February 18, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Maui_Bartlett

      Can I do italicized text that is also _highlighted_?

      May 7, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Maui_Bartlett

      highlighted?

      May 7, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Maui_Bartlett

      this is how: _`highlighted`_ You have to use italic tags outside of the highlight tags, the other way doesn't work.

      May 7, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/testmoogle

      How do you do a mixture then? Can you do this?

      italics​ nomal​ italics​ bold​ purple​ bold+italics​ italics

      July 29, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/mickey030210

      Been wondering how everyone's using such texts, and it's now solved. Thanks a bunch!

      June 13, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      You are welcome. Please also feel free to add to and improve any descriptions. Or provide links to other discussions that explain aspects of formatting that you find explain things in a more effective way for you.
      You can also check out related / other articles that could be beneficial on this topic by checking out the "related" articles list. This is located either to the right of this discussion, or underneath it (depending on the size of your viewing screen).

      Please also be aware I am constantly seeking to improve the header post (the information right at the top of a discussion), so it can be useful to recheck this post over time.

      We are a community here, in an ever changing environment that seeks continuous improvement towards providing the the best, most engaging language learning environment that we as a community can. This also includes that there is not one best way. For each of us learners are also different. And different resources are more relevant for each of us as individuals.

      Thank you for choosing to be such a positive and valuable member of our community mickey030210.

      June 13, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Kenan815020

      Test

      June 25, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/kookooroodza

      Just abusing this thread for testing since there is no preview:

      Pipe Separated Stuff
      August 14, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/dogomolo

      You can use preview in StackEdit.

      August 14, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/_Pensando_

      Test

      Although I cannot move from tense to tense very well in the Indicative Mood, I wanted to understand the Subjunctive Mood. I know it exists and read the rule for conjugation, but I wanted to know when to use it. That is, in what situation would I need to express/use the Subjunctive Mood and for me to get there I needed to contrast the Subjunctive Mood to what I know in the Indicative Mood.

      I opened an old Spanish text book and started reading. I came to the practice exercise and wrote most of the exercise into a table as memorization task and a visual comparison. The table really helped me, and so I thought I would share it with you. I also want to make sure the table is correct, so when you find an error I'll correct it.

      The last example with esperar is still confounding to me. Esperar in the Indicative Mood can mean "to hope", which to me sounds like it should be in the Subjunctive Mood. Any help explaining the difference between espero and espere would be greatly appreciated.

      Subjunctive Mood,
      Present Tense
      Indicative Mood,
      Present Tense
      La profesora prefiere que yo escriba
      una composición
      The teacher prefers that I write a composition
      Yo escribo una composición

      I am writing a composición
      La profesora prefiere que yo esté contento
      The teacher prefers that I be happy
      Estoy contento
      I am happy
      La profesora prefiere que yo hable español
      The teacher prefers that I speak Spanish
      Yo hablo español
      I speak Spanish
      La profesora prefiere que yo no me duerma
      sobre el escritorio
      The teacher prefers that I not sleep on
      the desk
      No me duermo sobre el escritorio

      I am not sleeping on the desk

      La profesora prefiere que yo venga
      a la casa todos los días
      The teacher prefers that I come to class
      everyday
      Yo vengo a la casa todos los días

      I come to class everyday

      Nuestros padres quieren que nosotros
      no digamos mentiras
      Our parents want that we tell no lies
      Our parents want us to tell no lies
      Our parents want us not to tell lies
      Nosotros no decimos mentiras

      We tell no lies
      We are telling no lies

      Todo amor que yo espere de la vida lo he encontrado solo en ti
      All the love that I hope for in life I have found only in you.
      Espero que encontrar amor en mi vida
      I hope to find love in my life
      September 14, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

      Please, please, please: add the ability to make table in Duolingo.

      The formatting to give examples, as conjugations, declensions, or other logical stuff, is so poor !!

      September 23, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      My dear PERCE_NEIGE, it is sooooooo good to see you around <3

      We can make tables now. Check out: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/33570075

      That will explain it further for you.
      You will also see a link to this up in the header (top) of this post.

      September 23, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/PERCE_NEIGE

      And for tables?

      September 25, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/daKanga
      Mod
      • 253

      If you go to this discussion, by clicking on this blue link here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/33570075 .

      It will explain how you can create tables in your posts.

      September 30, 2019

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/weerwater

      Type:

      test

      norsk1
      Infinitiv
      Nederlandsk *
      Presens
      Tt
      Preteritum
      Ovt
      Presens perfektum
      Vtt
      å være
      zijn
      er
      ben
      var
      was
      har vært
      ben geweest
      å ha
      hebben
      har
      heb
      hadde
      had
      har hatt
      heb gehad
      • = første person entall.
      October 4, 2019
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