Not in Spanish, though. My dictionary says 'clima' = climate, but in Mexico and Argentina, and elsewhere, 'clima' also means the weather, short-term, today, tomorrow, yesterday. Another term for weather is "tiempo," same as the word for "time," as in "hace mal tiempo" = the weather is bad
No. I'm afraid a lot of Mexicans are wrong. It's unacceptable the use of 'clima' for the daily weather. Weather changes every day even hour but not the climate. Climate is the same on a place and in a season. The daily weather is 'El tiempo' and it could be 'está bueno' or 'es bueno'. El tiempo es bueno hoy = el tiempo está bien hoy = hace buen tiempo hoy.
Yes, also in Spanish: "El tiempo es lo que miramos cada día para ver si necesitamos un paraguas, un abrigo o un bañador. -¿Qué tiempo hace hoy? -Hoy hace bueno/frío/calor, etc. El tiempo también es el programa de televisión que da el parte meteorológico. Así, decimos: -El tiempo da lluvia para mañana (el programa del tiempo). El clima es el tiempo en un espacio de influencia mucho mayor como las estaciones o los años: -El clima de Siberia es muy extremo. -Yemen tiene un clima desértico." (forum, WR)
I know this isn't a science lesson, but I find it a bit disturbing that there seems to be a structural deficiency in the language, in that clima can mean both climate and weather. We have enough problems with the distinction in English, and at least we have the two different words.
We just has the same discussion over "speed" and "velocity." In general, "velocidad" is used for both by general Spanish speakers. For engineers, math/physics teachers, etc., "rapidez" is used for "speed" if the usual "velocidad" phrases don't make it sufficiently clear that simple speed isn't being discussed, ie. "velocidad terminal" for terminal velocity."
In this case, "clima" seems to be used generally for non-scientific use. If you're reading less general articles, or in science class, or you're a meterologist (not the weather girl ;) ), you'll hear "tiempo" or "condiciones atmosféricas" for changeable daily weather. There is currently a climate change summit happening in Paris. In Spanish press reports on this event, climate in this larger sense seems to be "climático," and "climate change is "cambio climático."
In most cases, context will provide the correct meaning for "clima." In this case, the use of "yesterday," a specific, short timeframe, will indicate weather. How DL presents this may differ, but, it isn't really expected to be used as the sole resource. If you have a specialist interest, you'll add a broader vocabulary specific to that. This isn't a comprehensive list, but, it is useful for reference in the science fields. I hope you find it useful. http://www.ode.state.or.us/teachlearn/subjects/science/assessment/asmtsciterms_spnall.pdf
Hardly a structural deficiency! You use "estar" to talk about the vicissitudes of weather, as opposed to "ser" for the permanent climate of a place. That said, there is something very English about constantly discussing the weather ... maybe it's not the first topic in Spanish conversations.