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Tips & Notes – Food

Personal Pronouns in the Oblique Case

Essentially, personal pronouns take up the following oblique case forms:

Sing. Pronoun Oblique Form Pl. Pronoun Oblique Form
मैं (I) मुझ (me) हम (we) हम (us)
तुम (you) तुम (you) तुम (you all) तुम (you all)
तू (you) तुझ (you) - -
आप (you) आप (you) आप (you) आप (you all)
यह (he/she/it) इस (him/her/it) ये (they) इन (them)
वह (he/she/it) उस (him/her/it) वे (they) उन (them)

However, these are used in few categories of sentences and find no substance in this lesson other than being mentioned.

Personal Pronouns in the Oblique (Dative) Case

The previous forms were mentioned because those are the oblique case forms of personal pronouns per se but are seldom used as their applications are limited to very few cases which have not been discussed yet.

Even though Hindi has only two cases (nominative, oblique), it is said so because these are broadly the two major word-ending changing cases (causing significant inflections). This means that Hindi recognises a few other cases commonly seen in most languages. However, for those cases, Hindi uses the oblique case forms (those mentioned in the last section) along with a pinch of a few particles to convey the proper meaning in the required context.

  • The Accusative Case: The object case, it is used whenever nouns are objects to a verb. Contrary to most languages which show the heaviest inflection here, Hindi almost never requires any terminal change in the object (not even the oblique case). For example, मैं केला खाता हूँ – I eat the banana. Here, banana is the object for the subject I and verb eat. In Hindi, the object केला uses the nominative case endings, and not the oblique case.

  • The Dative Case: it is used whenever nouns (as indirect objects) are used with transitive verbs. For Hindi, the party happens here. Dative case endings (which are an extension to the oblique case) for personal pronouns are:

[Indirect objects are those for which the subject does a verb action, as opposed to direct objects upon which the subject does the verb action. Direct objects can be understood as the usual objects in a simple subject-object-verb pattern. Verbs that require objects, eg. eat, drink, see, as opposed to dance, sleep, etc., are known as transitive verbs.]

Sing. Pronoun Oblique Form Pl. Pronoun Oblique Form
मैं (I) मुझे (to me) हम (we) हमें (to us)
तुम (you) तुम्हें (to you) तुम (you all) तुम्हें (to you all)
तू (you) तुझे (to you) - -
आप (you) आपको (to you) आप (you) आपको (to you all)
यह (he/she/it) इसे (to him/her/it) ये (they) इन्हें (to them)
वह (he/she/it) उसे (to him/her/it) वे (they) उन्हें (to them)

(Notice that all plural forms of personal pronouns have the nasalising dot - anusvara ं, except आप)

For other nouns, the particle को (to) is used. Indirect objects are placed after subjects in Hindi. For example:

  • राज मुझे अपना केला देता है - Raj gives me his banana. (देना – to give)
  • मैं उसे एक बिल्ली देता हूँ - I give him a cat.
  • राज जूलिया को दूध देता है - Raj gives Julia milk.
  • वह नेहा को चाय देती है - She gives Neha tea.

In the above example, the nouns in the dative case are indirect objects, to whom the various items are being given. The various items are in the accusative case (showing no change).

Desires with चाहिए

चाहिए is a form of the verb चाहना (to want, need, desire), and literally means “is wanted/needed/desired by”. Like other verbs, it is placed at the end of sentences, and requires the subject to take the dative case. For example:

  • मुझे यह किताब चाहिए – I want this book (literally: By me this book is wanted)
  • तुम्हें काम चाहिए – You want work (literally: By you work is wanted)
  • नेहा को पानी चाहिए – Neha wants water (literally: By Neha water is wanted)

Liking with पसंद

पसंद is a word which means “like”. In its sentence construction, पसंद होना means “to be liked by”. It also requires the subject to be in the dative case. होना is conjugated appropriately based on the object. For example:

  • मुझे यह किताब पसंद है – I like this book (literally: By me this book is liked)
  • तुम्हें काम पसंद है – You like work (literally: By you work is liked)
  • नेहा को घोड़े पसंद हैं – Neha likes horses (literally: By Neha horses are liked)
  • उसे मैं पसंद हूँ – He likes me (literally: By him I am liked)
  • मुझे आप पसंद हैं – I like you (literally: By me you are liked)
  • पीटर को तुम पसंद हो – Peter likes you (literally: By Peter you are liked)

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August 3, 2018

2 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Aditya92

Great!

September 22, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/JoanneSbungee

This is helpful, but what's going on with "नेहा मुझे पसंद करती है" meaning Neha likes me? Because of the मुझे I would have expected this to be Neha is liked by me --> I like Neha, but the answer is the opposite. Does the कर somehow invert it? Thanks very much

February 15, 2019
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