anya - anyuka
Is there a specific difference or is it just personal preference?
Both are translated to mother, neither mean mom?
According to wiki:
anyu, anyuci and anyuka are diminutives for anya.
And mama would be the equivalent to mom.
Just to add: Most of the time you use "anyu" and "anyuci" to refer to your own mom. On the other hand, "anyuka" is more often used by teachers or doctors, when they refer to the mom of a child in their care. I, myself, can not really imagine using "anyuka" to my own mom.
Also: "mama" often means grandmother or mother-in-law.
But you can also talk about your own mom and say "az anyukám". "Anyu" and "anyuci" is more like addressing (talking to) your own mom.
Some people also call their mother-in-law "anyuka".
Most often I hear anyuka when people not from the same family are talking about either their own or each other's parents
Right, silly me. I had the base forms in mind. The base form "anyuka", is the one that I can only imagine eg. a teacher saying when referring to a kid's mom. The other forms, anyukám, anyukád etc. work and valid :)
What confused me a little is that anyu and anyuci can be used in this form to adress my mom, while anyuka can not, it has to be conjugated first.
I would say it is highly personal. Meaning changing with every house, every family, every person. These words are practically used as names. Most likely, your parents would first teach you how to call them and, while it may change, you are usually stuck with it. That will be the normal for you.
There is no way you can set up a one-to-one reference between various diminutives in different languages. It will be a rough approximation at best.
What is the "default" way to say your mother?
What is professional, respectful, political correct? Is a teacher "allowed" to say anyad, anyud, anyucid, anyukad, mamad and it is all good? He does not overstep some line? Does it depend on the age? A kindergarten teacher will use the diminutives but when you are eg 15 "your mom" will turn in "your mother"?
Are those -u, -ci, -ka/ke endings used elsewhere too?
Probably the safest is "édesanyád". That is really difficult to misinterpret.
If you say "anyád", you may get into trouble. Because that is how one's mother is referred to in swearing. Yet, many people talk about their mothers as "anyám", and it is perfectly normal. Let them do so, but do not call their mothers the same way. Also, on official forms, you will see "anyja neve" (ie. "Mother's maiden name").
You can also safely say "anyukád" and don't worry about it being a diminutive. That is fine.
You can also say "mamád", but to some people it means "your grandmother".
A teacher would probably say one of the above, most likely "anyukád", "mamád".
The others are more personal, so you only use those with your own mom or within the family or among friends, possibly about their mothers if you personally know the mothers. But this is where it becomes a variable. Every family is different. There are still families where children address their parents using the formal you. They may use "anyuka" combined with it. You can find old Hungarian movies with examples of these.
Again, the safest way is "édesanyád". So you can start with that and then watch and learn.
Yes, those endings are used elsewhere, too. For an obvious one: with the father, too. Then with any name. The ending depends somewhat in what sounds best with a given name. The most common diminutive is "-ka"/"-ke", but it widely varies. There could be other, filler, diminutives inserted before them, or the diminutive could be something else. With persons' names, the diminutive form could be quite different from the original name:
"András" to "Bandi"
"István" to "Pista"
"Erzsébet" to "Böske"
These are just a few examples, Hungarian is very rich in diminutives, the sky is the limit, and it is all up to personal preferences. Some names can have a dozen or more diminutive forms. And you can always make up new ones.
Édesanya is probably a problem if someone is adopted... I would have expected the base form, anya, being the neutral form. And anyuka kind of off limits if you don't know her personally.
I think I get why these forms are even used here. These seem to be kind of "official" language, partially replacing the misused/only on documents base forms.
Yes, that can happen. :) It is best to consult with the person to find out if they like the way you try to call them. People may not like all the diminutive forms, or they may reserve them for only certain people.
But this can happen in English, as well. Your name could be "Richard" and really hate it when people call you "Rich".
"Zorka", I think, is a foreign name, and it already sounds like it has been "diminuted". "Zor-ka". Of course it is not, but it sounds like that. Also, some people's official name is a diminutive form. For example: "Mariska", it is a diminutive of "Mária". So, what can you do? Sometimes the original form is cute enough, no need to make it cuter. But some names sound too serious, or are too long, so people come up with something shorter and sweeter.