"Is he big?"
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Depends on what that previous exercise was.... If it was something like "she's a woman", it can be translated to "je to žena", just like "he's a man" could be "je to muž". In both sentences, we can also say "that's a woman" or "that's a man" in English.
Here, it's impossible to replace "he" with "it" or "that" and it's likewise impossible to replace "on" (unexpressed) with "to".
"Je to velký?" makes no sense in standard Czech, "to" is neuter and it must be "Je to velké?" and then you're asking about an "it".
Side note: In the other direction though, "Je velký?" can also mean "Is it big?" in English in case the Czech question refers to a masculine-gendered thing, for example a house (Je ten dům velký? -> Je velký? -> Is it big?)