सफ़ेद is a borrowing from Persian/Farsi :)
At Proto level, both सफ़ेद and श्वेत (Sanskrit) seem to originate from the same root.
And in Punjabi, they say "white" as ciṭṭā ਚਿੱਟਾ. Uh-oh, where does that fit? Pretty vernacular-ized from Sanskrit श्वेता! :) "Safed", I imagine, was a pretty new-sounding word when the Mughals came along.
Like 60% of Hindi words, yeah.
It's not exactly 60% since that amount penetrates way into the language's grammar, which is almost completely Sanskrit! :D
Hey, I said words, not grammar! :)