हम खाते हैं = మేము తింటాము
हम खा रहे हैं = మేము తింటున్నాము
Note that the first Telugu sentence has two uses - to talk about the regular/repeated action of eating in the present and to talk about eating in the future. The Hindi sentence is only equivalent to the first usage.
This is also probably why you are having difficulty with the present tenses in Hindi. Modern Telugu lacks a distinct simple present tense and when we talk about the present tense, we are usually referring to the present continuous (the second sentence above). The future tense is used for the simple present and distinguished by context.
@Owen-Benjambavan: I agree that the sentence on it's own is a bit silly but what if you want to say something like 'We eat at home on Saturdays'. You need to know the correct tense form.
In one of the previous examples the correct answer was "औरतें किताबें पढ़ती हैं।" and now पढ़ती changed to पढ़ते even though it's still female plural. Why? I also notice that the text on this topic says पढ़ती but the only selectable option in the 'tap what you hear' exercise was पढ़ते. I'm so confused. Is this a mistake?
No. See the tips and notes: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/hi/Plurals/tips-and-notes
Only हैं becomes nasalized for the third-person feminine plural form.