Translation:What is the climate like on other planets?
Would you be able to say.
What is the climate like on other planets.
With the added "like" or would it mean something else?
I was told that adding "like" asks for a detailed description. Without "like" it seems to assume climate is a small set of discrete options (temperate, tropical, etc.), but the difference is subtle.
I don't have such a distinction. To me "What is the climate" sounds slightly odd without "like," but I would normally ask "How is the climate?"
I agree that "How is the climate on other planets?" would be a natural way to say this in English.
I was told that this suggests the hearer personally experienced the climate!
"Different" has a narrower scope, as it eliminates "other", which are similar. In addition, in this case it would prompt for a comparison of climates on various types of planets.