As a native speaker I assume "How could anyone survive" would be a better translation.
On its own, and in a question, it doesn't work. But that word order would be fine in sentence like, "How anyone could survive something like that is a mystery to me."
It is actually not a better translation. As a native speaker you know that "jak mohl" is only the past tense, not the conditional. The translation with "could" is less accurate because it also means "jak by mohl".
When we make decisions about the main English translations, among many other things, we need to take ambiguity into account.