"I am with my mother."
Translation:मैं अपनी माँ के साथ हूँ।
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Whenever the subject of the clause is the one that is the owner of the object then you use अपना, अपनी, अपने. They literally mean "own" as in "my own" or "your own" or "his/her own". So तुम अपना सेब खाते हो। "you eat your (own) apple". मैं अपने बेटे के साथ घर जाता हूँ। "I go home with my (own) sons". वह अपनी किताब से पढ़ती है। "She reads from her (own) book". I hope that helps.
Because the subject has already been defined as मैं, using मेरी is redundant and incorrect. It’s invariably the rule to use अपनी/अपने whenever making a reference to a subject that has already been stated and owns whatever is being discussed as the object. In English, saying “I am with my own mother” is not necessary (you can say “I am with my mother”), but it’s different in Hindi. You have to use में अपनी माँ के साथ हूँ. Similarly, he is with his mother: वह अपनी माँ के साथ है, not वह उसकी माँ के साथ है. Hope this helps!
"के साथ" works as one unit. I don't know if linguists (for example) would technically say साथ is a postposition according to some strict definition, but for all intents and purposes of learning Hindi, everyone treats it as such.
के (invariably, nothing to do with gender or number) appears in some two-part postpositions. It's a bit like saying "out of the water" in English, where "out of" is two words that work as a unit as the preposition. You couldn't say, "He jumped of the water." You could say: 1) "He jumped out the water" and 2) "He jumped out of the water." I feel that #1 is more colloquial whereas #2 is how I would express it in clear writing. Similarly, the के can be left off many times but it tends to be more clear to include it.
It is in the oblique case.
If 'aapni' is the source of confusion - only regular (-a ending) masculine nouns change (to -e) in the oblique case, and possessive pronouns agree with the noun possessed.
Hence 'ma' doesn't change (from the direct case), and neither does the 'aapni' preceding it.
ं (called Bindu (dot) or Anusvaar) stands for a nasal consonant. It has to be pronounced like one of Hindi's five nasal consonants (ङ, ञ़, ण, न and म).
Which of the five nasal consonants it is pronounced as in a particular word depends on the letter that follows. The nasal with the same place of articulation as that letter is chosen.
For example, हिंदी is pronounced 'Hindi' where the ं is pronounced as the dental nasal न(n) because it is followed by a dental consonant द. Similarly, लंबा (tall) is pronounced 'Lamba' where the ं is pronounced as the labial nasal म(m) because it is followed by ब.
ँ (called Chandrabindu (moon-dot) or Anunaasik) stands for vowel nasalisation. When it is present in a word, you try to make the vowel sound with your nose as well as your mouth. For example, in माँ, the vowel is आ. The 'aa' sound should come from both your nose and mouth.
In some words, where there is no space above the horizontal line to put the ँ because of other diacritic marks, we use the ं in its place with the understanding that we still want to nasalise the vowel. For example, में (in) where we should nasalise the ए vowel.