Yes, drip coffee is from a coffee pot with a filter that drips hot water through the grounds. Italian coffee is brewed in an espresso maker (see below) and if you want a macchiato (small amount of milk), latte (50/50), or cappuccino (milk + foam) you have to order it that way. Caffé is espresso.
[Belatedly!] Sorry John, but that's not an espresso maker, it's a moka pot. But it is (I believe) what most Italians use to make coffee at home, and it does make something that approximates to espresso. If you rent holiday accommodation in Italy it's what is usually provided, unless you ask specially for a filter coffee maker. But it doesn't exert enough pressure to make a proper espresso - for that you need a machine with a pump, which is what cafés and the like use to make coffee.
Many thanks for the explanation. On the assumption I ever get to Italy, what do I ask for if I want black coffee but not espresso - what I think trendy coffee bars refer to as an 'Americano' and what for me is just ... ordinary black coffee, no bells, no whistles and absolutely no milk.
It could be reasonable to say "thanks" instead of "please" in English. If you and a friend were at a coffee shop and your friend said "I'm going to go get another coffee, would you like anything?" You could respond "A double espresso, thanks."
This could be meant/interpreted as either "thanks for offering", "thanks in advance for getting it" or a combination of the two.
Espresso is a "foreigner" word. We say only, in a bar, "un caffé - un caffé doppio (raro) - un caffé ristretto - un caffé lungo (very rare)- un caffé macchiato - marocchino, schiumato, tazza grande, tazza piccola ... five italians in a bar, five different coffees ! Moka pot is only for home.
Unless you are Turkish or Greek, that type of coffee is not what most people would call "ordinary black coffee". Some people would call Nescafé (ugh!) "ordinary", some might mean filter coffee, or coffee from a cafetière. All these exist in Italy, but when an Italian talks about coffee s/he usually means what Europeans and Americans call espresso (including the sort made in a Moka pot). Surely the term "espresso" has wide currency outside Italy? It's certainly universal in the UK.
There's a few things going on in your question, so bear with me.
Adjective changing according to noun does not mean that the last letter of the noun is copied over to the adjective.
Rather, it means that adjectives and nouns must agree in gender (feminine or masculine) and in number (singular or plural).
How to find out the gender of your noun? Look at the ending or consult a dictionary. There are many patterns, i.e. -o = masc, -a = fem, but there are just as many exceptions.
-e can be a marker for the masculine and the feminine:
il fiore (flower)
la stagione (season)
The plural for ALL nouns and adjectives (m and f) ending in -e is -i:
il studente, gli studenti (the student, male - the students)
la lezione, le lezioni (lesson - lessons)
However, words that are accented on the last vowel are invariable. This means they have the same form in singular as in plural.
il caffè, i caffè
la città, le città (city - cities)
But the adjective accompanying them will take the appropriate marker for the gender of your noun, as well as the plural marker:
il caffè freddo, i caffè freddi: the cold coffee/coffees
masculine -o becomes -i in plural
la grande città, le grandi città: the big city/cities
feminine -e becomes -i in plural (see point 5 above)
- So, if you know that caffè is masculine, the appropriate plural adjective would be 'doppi' (it gets an -i in plural form but as there is already an 'i' in the base form, this is not doubled). 'Doppie' is for feminine plural.