I found really funny knowing that «बच्ची» = «child» is actually a cousin word of English «veteran», quite the opposite! How come? Well the explanation is that they both derive from the Proto-Indo-European «wétos» = «year». But while in the Sanskrit route (via Sanskrit «बत्स» = «calf») took the meaning of «person/animal of about one year of age», in the Latin route instead (via Latin «vetus» = «old») took the meaning of «having many years».
Amazing and ironic at the same time, isn't it?
It's two different times. Present simple and present continuous. वह बच्ची जा रही है (that child is going) is going- means now, at the moment. वह बच्ची जाती है (that child goes) usually, or sometimes, or generally.
when forming present continuous, you need to divide the base verb, and leave only the root for example: जाता जा+ता, आता आ+ता