"He is from Jakarta, not from Bali."
Translation:Dia dari Jakarta, bukan dari Bali.
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I believe that if you think of "bukan" as closer to "not really [a thing or idea]," the Indonesian conjugation becomes easier. While 'tidak' is used more broadly and for verbs, adjectives, negative confirmations. He is not really from Bali==>Dia bukan dari Bali==>Dia bukan orang Bali. Is he from Bali? Tidak. Is he tall? Dia tidak tinggi. I think the above is correct but welcome correction.
I'd suggest expanding the English sentence to its implied meaning: "He is from Jakarta, not from Bali." ==> "He is [a person] from Jakarta, not [a person] from Bali." Translation: Dia orang Jakarta, bukan orang Bali. Since using 'orang' here would seem, I believe, overwrought to Indonesians, they would simplify but keep the same idea with 'dari'.