"Umur Tini dua puluh tahun."
Translation:Tini is twenty years old.
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Tini dua puluh tahun, is also grammatically correct by the way.
It's two ways to say that.
Tini dua puluh tahun = Tini is (has in some languages) twenty (year old, years = tahun).
Umur Tini dua puluh tahun = Tini's age is twenty (years old).
Umur Tini dua puluh, I think it's also correct, as an age is always counted in years, so it can probably be implied, the same way than in English.
Yes, and what does it mean to ”be”, anyway? What’s the difference between a red dog and ”A dog is red”, because in the case of a red dog, a dog IS red, and in the case of a dog being red, you got a red dog...
What exactly is anything or anyone doing when ”being” something? The dog is not an object of being. Not as when one feeds a dog or sees a dog; the dog is the object of feeding or seeing, then.
In Austronesian languages, there’s a verb, though, that means ”to exist”; it makes much more sense! Even if it’s hard to tell what that means, as well.
Gedung itu ada di sana. That building exists there.
NOTE: I was not 100 % serious about Austronesian taking a Wittgensteinian stance against the legitimacy of the verb “to be.” There’s a word order issue. “Is” is implied by using a particular word order. I believe native Austronesians (and Russians, Ukrainians, Japanese, Nahua, etc) easily put the verb “to be” in place when learning foreign languages. It’s kind of written into the human brain. No natural language lacks it all together?
Indonesian doesn't restrict word placement in a sentence.
For this example "Umur Tini dua puluh tahun" means "Tini is twenty years old".
But you can re-arrange the sentence to "Tini ber-umur dua puluh tahun" which basically means the same.
In real world conversation you can even delete some of the words to make the sentence shorter. Simply says " Tini dua puluh tahun", which means "Tini is twenty years", but Indonesians will understood that it was about Tini's age.
Hope this answer helps
I disagree with you. Word place is not free in Indonesian.
The only thing is that there are more available slots for word place most of the time, than in English. It doesn't mean we can omit any words or change the place of any words.
I disagree too with "you can delete words", I think it can be very confusing. How could I know what they say if they delete words?
The rule is that words that are not mandatory for the meaning are implied. For instance, for the plural, and the replicated plural. And the rule of the "to be" verb that is implied most of the time (I cat, meaning I am a cat...)
Here, the "tahun" can be omitted, the same way than in English. I am twenty. The "years old" is omitted too, like the "Umur Tini dua sepuluh (tahun), in English it's also Tini's age is twenty (years old), so it's the same thing that is omitted, because it's obvious that the age is counted in years.
The berumur is the verb based on the word umur, it means litterally "to be aged of..." "to have the age of..." as a verb. So it's normal, as it's a verb, that it's not at the same place than the noun that was subject "Tini's age". It's still a language with Subject-Verb-Complement as a schema.
Always the second last!
Undigested loanwords might have a foreign stress in some regional varieties. Also, schwa can flip the stress, but only in parts of western Indonesian islands.
I just learned from Quora that there is a certain cool Jakartan jargon with a word-initial stress, which has reached a certain notoriety in radio and TV.
Anyway, Malay and Indonesian tend to have a light stress, so it's not a very big business.