Umur - Age
Saya - "My". Saya can be both "I" and "my". In this case, it means "my"
Sepuluh - ten
Tahun - years old. Literal translation of "tahun" is "year", but in this context, I translate it ad "years old"
Umur saya sepuluh tahun - My age is ten years old
Note: Saya both means "I" and "my".
Jeruk saya - My orange
Saya jeruk - I am an orange
Hope this helps
Note: Saya means "my" only when it's immediately after a noun.
You've made a mistake, "tahun" means only "year(s)", not "years old".
"My age is ten years old" is not correct in English, it's "My age is ten". As an age cannot be "years old", it's simply a number. And "years old" is used when you use the "to be" verb in English. I am X years old.
That's literally equivalent to Saya berumur x tahun. (I'm aged of x years = I'm x years old).
"years-old" in English is a way to say "aged of", (as an adjective).
You see why you cannot apply it directly to a number, as a number is not aged of...
No, it's not correct, as "umur" is a noun, not a verb, and you use it as a verb in your sentence, so it can't be correct.
"saya umur" makes no sense, and if you want to say "my age" you have to use the "saya" at the possessive-pronoun place, thus AFTER the noun.
Umur saya = my abe.
If you want to use "saya" not as a possessive-pronoun, but as a subject-pronoun, you have to use it before a verb:
Saya berumur sepuluh (tahun).
In this case, it's correct.
Or: Umur saya sepuluh (tahun).
Saya before a verb = subject-pronoun (=I)
Saya after a noun = possessive adjective (=my)
A lot of these phrases require the "most correct" way of saying it, which makes placement hard unfortunately for those of us who have studied the language as a second or third language elsewhere. Whilst my English-speaking brain translates this as "my age is ten years old" the most correct format is "I am 10 years old" even though it 'technically' is presuming context.
I think it's better to say "Umur saya sepuluh tahun", I'm not sure your sentence is correct. When you omit/skip a verb in Indonesian, most of the time it's the "to be" verb, and Indonesian doesn't express age, as English, with the "to be" verb, (you don't say for instance saya adalah 7), this is an English specificity. When you say "I am 7", it's a short to say "I'm aged of 7" (= I am 7 year old).
There's a link here to help with expression of age in Indonesian:
Umur and usia = equivalent.
Umurku = usiaku = umur saya = usiaku = my age.
For instance: "Umur saya sembilan tahun” (My age is 9 years).
Tahun is optional. You can say "Umur saya sembilan". (it's implied, as it's obvious it's counted in years). So "Umurku 9", as a short form is correct.
For a birthdate:
“Andi lahir tahun 2000” (Andi was born in 2000).
You can also use the verbs berumur or berusia, meaning to be aged of...
Saya berusia x tahun.
(not a native). I think "Umur saya..." is less formal. Usually the compounded forms (like here with the prefix ber-) are a little more formal.
It's not the sentence that you have to translate here, so they won't accept it for this exercise, but you can also say "Saya...", it's even more simple.