Does not sound good. There is no noun in the sentence that asks the preposition "de". It's as if something is missing. One solution would be: "Eu perdi toda a parte Do meu dinheiro" (I lost all part of my money).
I see "whole" as entire, total. You can say "it is been raining all the week/the whole week", because it means entire, but i dont think whole would fit in this sentence. At least, ive never seen that before...
You can say, "I lost my whole savings." or "my whole account", but for some reason not my "whole money", just "all my money".
'Whole' refers to a singular noun (the whole week, the whole account) 'all' could refer to a collection of nouns AND singular nouns (all the money, all week).
Actually it's less about singular vs plural and more about countability. Money isn't countable (unless you're taking about several different moneys eg from different countries). So you can't lose the whole money - you need a quantity noun - but you can lose all of the money.
Dollars are countable. You can "lose the whole dollar". though this sounds silly as it's such a small amount, it does at least make sense.
There's more about countability in English here: https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/nouns-un-countable.htm
It's ironic that (grammatically speaking) money is regarded as uncountable - some people enjoy counting money: "The king was in his counting house, counting out his money". :-)