"These letters and books are mine."
Translation:Surat-surat dan buku-buku ini punya saya.
@jessm.jm can you develop please, i don't get it.
"surat saya" = "my letter" and not "i am a letter". Right ?
So why "surat2 ini saya" = "these letters are ME", and not "these letters are mine" ? Why is it necessary to add "punya" to indicate possession in that case...?
THANKS for your help in simple english cos' i am not anglophone.
Because Indonesian pronouns have no cases, "saya" by itself can mean "I", "me", or "my". So rigid sentence structure is important to understand the meaning. If "saya" comes right after a noun or noun phrase, it means "my", but if it comes after another pronoun, like "ini", it can't mean "my" any more, and is interpreted as meaning "me".
In order to say that something is mine, we need to add another noun before "saya" representing the thing we're talking about. Usually the noun is something like "milik"(property) or "punya"(possession). So we actually have to say something is my possession instead of just saying it is mine.
In English, pronouns still change to show case, so we can easily tell the difference between "me" and "my/mine", so "mine" can be used by itself in the second half of a sentence and it's still clear what it means.
What is your first language? Maybe I could explain it better in terms of your language.
I think it's technically ambiguous because the verb punya (have) and the noun punya (posession) look the same, however the phrase "punya saya (my posession)" is routinely used in this way to show posession and the context would normally make it clear.
However, in contexts where someone or something might actually have the speaker, there could be some confusion. For example, "Kamu punya saya" might mean "you have me" or "You are mine". It may be that a native speaker might use "milik saya" instead of "punya saya" in some situations to avoid misunderstandings, because "milik (property)" is more commonly used as a noun and only rarely used as a verb to mean "own".
Also in formal Indonesian, "mepunyai" is a verb that explicitly means "have", and "kepunyaan" is most likely a noun that means "posession", so you could always use this type of language when clarity is important, but it might be weird in casual speech.
The short answer is no. "Punya" in this case is not a verb, but a noun meaning something that you have, in other words a possession. So the sentence literally means, "These letters and books are my possesessions". "Ada" is not used to express "are" in this case.
The long answer is this. In English, the forms of the verb "be" are used to express existence/being as well as to express identity, but in many other languages these two concept are expressed in different ways. In a sentence like "These letters and books are mine", "are" is what's called a copula - it expresses identity by coupling a subject with another thing like a noun or adjective referred to as the compliment.
In Indonesian, copulae like that are regularly implied simply by stating the subject, and then stating the compliment - no verb is required between the subject and compliment. In this particular sentence, the subject is "Surat-surat dan buku-buku ini"(These letters and books) and the compliment is "punya saya" (my possessions).
"Ada" is a verb that expresses existance/being. If we say, "Surat-surat dan buku-buku ini ada.", it means "These letters and books exist" or "There are these letters and books". Ada cannot be used to link a subject with a compliment, but it can be used with an adverb to express how or where something exists - for example, "Surat-surat dan buku ini ada di sekolah" means "These letters and books are/exist at school."
There is another word, "adalah", which hasn't been introduced yet. This word can be used as a copula. So you could say "Surat-surat dan buku-buku ini adalah punya saya". However, you still can't drop "punya", because if you said "Surat-surat dan buku-buku ini adalah saya" it would sound like you were saying "These letters and books are me".
"Saya" can only mean "my/mine" when it comes right after a noun phrase , so that's why to say something is mine in Indonesian, we have to use "saya" with a noun like "punya" or "milik".