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  5. "The criminal has accidentall…

"The criminal has accidentally dropped the knife."

Translation:bong taj chaghpu' HeSwI'.

August 20, 2018



I translated (well, selected the words from the list)

taj bong chaghpu' HeSwi'

What is the rule here? is the adverb always in front?


That's right -- an adverb always goes at the beginning of a sentence.

(And if there is a time expression, that goes even further at the beginning; for example, wa'Hu' bong ghew Sop "He accidentally ate a beetle yesterday" rather than bong wa'Hu' ghew Sop.)

Adverbs are explicitly discussed in the later unit "Adv".

I'll add a paragraph to the tips and notes of this "Aspect" unit about the adverbs chIch and bong, though, as they are introduced here.


Thank you! i noticed the pattern with time expressions, but i wasn't sure it was a rule.


There's one exception that I don't think is taught in the course. If an object noun is topicalized or intensified with the -'e' suffix, it can come before any adverbial. For instance, the example in The Klingon Dictionary:

Daq HaqwI' yISam!
Find the surgeon now!

HaqwI''e' DaH yISam!
Find the SURGEON (as opposed to someone else) now!
The surgeon! Find him now!

Basically, you're fronting the important bit to give it prominence.


By the way, the overall general rule of syntax ordering is

{time expressions} {adverbials} {syntactic noun phrases} {objects} {verbs} {subjects}

DaHjaj QIt ghopDap jojDaq jagh lughochta'bogh ghoS martaq Duj 'entepray' je. Today, among asteroids, Martok's ship and the Enterprise go slowly toward the enemy they have tracked down.

As you can see, you can pack a lot into a Klingon sentence. This ordering is broken from time to time by certain other rules.

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