https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877

Russian Prepositions, Case of Objects, and Meaning [Corrections welcome]

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Note: in the following table columns, there is no function for keeping words from splitting across new lines in the text, so be careful in reading the table to ascertain if a word is spelled across two lines, e.g. ou tline = outline

Nominative

Case Preposition Meaning
Nom. в "in" in idiomatic expressions meaning "become a member of group"
Nom. вот "here is"
Nom. где "where is/are"
Nom. за "for" in questions "Что (это) за ...?" and exclamations "Что за ... !"
Nom. по "each" (distributive).
Nom. там "there is"

Genitive

Case Preposition Meaning
Gen. без (безо) "without"
Gen. близ "near"
Gen. в виде "as, in the form of, by way of"
Gen. в продолжение "during,throughout"
Gen. в силу "in virtue, on the strength"
Gen. в течение "during"
Gen. ввиду “in view of”
Gen. вдоль “along”
Gen. вместо “instead of”
Gen. вне “outside”
Gen. внутри “inside” to indicate the position
Gen. внутрь “inside” to indicate movement
Gen. возле “near”
Gen. впереди “in front of”
Gen. вследствие “because of”
Gen. вокруг “round”
Gen. впереди "in front of"
Gen. вроде "like, similar to"
Gen. вследствие "as a consequence, as a result"
Gen. для “for”
Gen. до “up to, until, before”
Gen. за исключением "except, excepting"
Gen. из (изо) “out of, from”
Gen. из-за “out from behind, because of”
Gen. из-под “out from under”
Gen. кроме "besides; except (for) "
Gen. кругом "around"
Gen. между "between" - used with the genitive only in a few phrases
Gen. мимо “past”
Gen. Много "a lot of, much, many"
Gen. накануне "the day before, on the eve"
Gen. напротив “opposite”
Gen. насчет “about, as regards”
Gen. насчёт "about, regarding"
Gen. не считая "excluding, not counting"
Gen. около “at the side of, near, around”
Gen. от (ото) “from, away from”
Gen. относительно “concerning”
Gen. помимо “besides, apart from”
Gen. после “after”
Gen. посреди “in the middle of”
Gen. по поводу "in connection with, regarding"
Gen. по случаю "because of, on account of"
Gen. посредством “by means of”
Gen. подле “alongside of”
Gen. позади “behind”
Gen. помимо "apart from"
Gen. поперёк "across"
Gen. после "after"
Gen. посреди "in the middle of"
Gen. посредством "by means of, with"
Gen. против “against”
Gen. путём “by means of”
Gen. ради “for the sake of”
Gen. с (со) “from, off, since”
Gen. сверх “on top of, over and above”
Gen. свыше “over, more than”
Gen. сзади "behind"
Gen. снаружи "outside of"
Gen. среди “among”
Gen. у "near, at, at the house of (possession), etc.”

Accusative

Case Preposition Meaning
Acc. в (во) “into, to, in” when movement is involved; "per [time period]" - в следующий раз = "next time"; "to play [a sport] or a game" играть в футбол [soccer], играть в игру [a/the game]; "to believe, trust in" верить в [Acc]: "through [a window]" в окно
Acc. исключая "excepting, with the exception of"
Acc. на '"on to, on" when movement is involved; "for" + circumstance/activity: for breakfast; also used in the phrase «ответ на вопрос» "answer to a/the question"; translating "to [a foreign language]" на английский язык; "looking at something" смотреть на небо "looking/to look at the sky"
Acc. за “behind or beyond” when movement into a position is involved;
Acc. несмотря на "in spite of, regardless of"
Acc. о (об, обо) “against” in the sense of in contact with
Acc. по “up to” a certain point in space or time
Acc. под (подо) “under” when movement into a position is involved
Acc. про “about, concerning”
Acc. с (со) “approximately, about” with nouns denoting measurement
Acc. сквозь “through”
Acc. спустя "thereafter, after that"
Acc. через “across, through, over”
Acс. включая "including"

Dative

Case Preposition Meaning
Dat. благодаря “thanks to”
Dat. вопреки “despite”
Dat. к (ко) “towards, up to”"towards, up to, to"; with привыкнуть к [noun] "to get used to [noun]
Dat. навстречу "towards"
Dat. назло "for spite, to displease"
Dat. наперекор "in defiance, in opposition, against"
Dat. по “along, round, around, by means (communication), on (days), down (a street, path, way)”; "on, in the field of" книга по математике
Dat. согласно "according to"

Instrumental

Case Preposition Meaning
Instr. за “behind, beyond”
Instr. кончая "ending (with, on) "
Instr. между “between”
Instr. над (надо) “over, above”
Instr. перед (передо) “in front of, before”
Instr. под (подо) “under, below”
Instr. с (со) “with”

Prepositional

Case Preposition Meaning
Prep. в (во) "in, at” to define location where subject/object is situated or happening; to play on a team "в шахматной команде" = on a chess team; "in [months, years, centuries]"
Prep. на "on, in, at” to define location; "[on] (a musical instrument)", e..g, "играть на скрипке" to play the violin; Idiom: на улице "on the street" = "outside"; "in [foreign language adjective]", e.g., на японском [языке] "in [the] Japanese [language]"
Prep. о (об, обо) "of, about, concerning" NOT "approximately"; See note below on usage
Prep. по “after, following”
Prep. при “at the time of, in the presence of, while”

Notes based on recent work in certain modules at Duolingo and discussions after them:

For preposition о, об, обо:

обо is used before words beginning with letter combinations чт-, вс-, мн-. For example, обо мне
o is used before words beginning with a consonant sound (including e = "ye", as in о Европе)
ob is used before words beginning with a vowel sound.

For some prepositions, such as в (во), there are a huge number of definitions and uses which cannot be set out here. It is best to look up such prepositions in resource materials such as Katzner's Russian-English dictionary.

There is a special class of masculine nouns, e.g., Лес, which have a stressed -у/-ю ending that is used with в & на when those two prepositions involve location or place. Most such nouns have only one syllable, except берег, ветер and аэропорт, the latter included in the class in the 20th century by analogy with порт (which had been there already).

According to comments elsewhere in Duolingo, the exact circumstance for use of such forms is yet to be explained properly: some of these nouns only use the non-standard form with one of the prepositions (eg., на свету).

6 months ago

10 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
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looks good but I didn't understand what the very first one is, can you give an example of that?

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Mirokha

Apparently, "меня приняли в пионеры", "ты записался в добровольцы".

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Jeffrey855877
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I think that this may be an example: Я хочу поступить в этот университет = "I want to get into this university" - but I'm not certain that it's nominative - it may be accusative, but there's no difference, so there's no way of telling from the wording.

1 week ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Mirokha

It is certainly accusative. It can seen from comparing your example to "I want to get into this school": "Я хочу поступить в эту школу".

1 week ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Mirokha

Also:
вот - such a/what a ("вот какой рассеянный", "вот дела", "вот удивил")
там - say ("сходи в театр там, в кино")
в продолжение - further to ("в продолжение нашего разговора")
вроде - seems to ("вроде он проснулся", "я вроде бы не голоден")

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Myrrael
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Большое спасибо!

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Myrrael
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Question, does 'У' not also fall under a Prepositional Case Preposition?

From the 'Where is it?' lesson: Это человек у двери

Pretty sure I've seen it used for near a building SOMEWHERE, too. Can't recall where though, sorry.

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Mirokha

No, it is certainly Gen, only coinciding with Pre in the case of дверь:
Gen у двери; Pre о двери
Gen у окна; Pre об окне
Gen у дома; Pre о доме

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Myrrael
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Thank you!

6 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/OzymandiasKoK

Jeffrey - thanks so much for this comprehensive summary - most helpful and much appreciated

2 weeks ago
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