"Who is caught?"
Translation:Siapa yang ditangkap?
So, I wrote "Siapa ditangkap" and was counted wrong because I did not insert "yang." I can understand that this may mean something closer to "Who is it that is caught," but I cannot understand why that is necessary.
without the "yang" the sentence is very unnatural i guess, perhaps on conversation is OK, but definately not on writing
Fine. Do you have a sense of what "yang" means here or why it would sound odd without it? I am struggling to get a sense of when yang should be inserted into a sentence and when it should not. Clearly it is not simply random.
So, I wrote "Siapa ditangkap" and was counted wrong because I did not insert "yang."
I can understand that this may mean something closer to "Who is it that is caught," but I cannot understand why that is necessary.
Apa and siapa cannot occur as subject of a basic passive clause.
Your sentence 'Siapa ditangkap' is a basic passive clause, the same as :
'Tini ditangkap', 'Tono ditangkap', 'Dimas ditangkap'
'Siapa ditangkap', this sentence has 'siapa' as subject.
That's officially not allowed.
That's the reason they want you to use 'yang'.
By inserting 'yang', it becomes an identifying clause.
'yang ditangkap' becomes the subject of the sentence.
'siapa' becomes the verb/predicate.
Like the two sentences below:
'Siapa yang ditangkap?'
'Who was the one that was caught'
'Yang ditangkap siapa?'
'The one that was caught was who?'
If 'apa' & 'siapa' occur as part of the subject in a passive clause, then the same construction is used.
'Siapa yang ditangkap oleh polisi?'
'Siapa yang dibawa oleh Tini?'
'Apa yang dimakan oleh Tini?'
'Makanan apa yang dihabiskan oleh Tini?'
'Sepatu apa yang dibeli oleh Tini?
The above sentences cannot work without 'yang'.
'yang' does not only change the structure, but gives extra emphasis to the word (noun phrase) preceding it.
In the above sentences, it's the extra emphasis on what/who, apa/siapa.