"ia" & "dia" , "Basics 2", Tips & Notes, Addendum

"Basics 2", Tips & notes, Addendum

"ia" & "dia" , the differences,

It isn't mentioned in the "Tips & notes" of "Basics 2".
"ia" also doesn't come up frequently in the lessons.
It's just in case you see it in one of the sentences.
(You'll always see it in example sentences in the dictionary).

"ia" & "dia" ==> 3rd person singular pronoun.

Both can be used as subject of the sentence (3rd person singular)

The differences :
"ia" is not used as an object in a sentence.
"ia" is not used as an indirect object in a sentence.
"ia" is not used as a possessive pronoun.
"ia" can be used for fysical objects.
"dia" is not used for fysical objects.

Examples :

Ia melihatku (okay)(subject of sentence)
Dia melihatku (okay)(subject of sentence)

Saya melihat ia (not so okay, object of sentence)
Saya melihat dia (okay)
Saya melihatnya (okay)

Saya menerima surat dari ia (not so okay, indirect object of sentence)
Saya menerima surat dari dia (okay)
Saya menerima surat darinya (okay)

Surat itu penting sekali, ia selalu di kantongku.
That letter is very important, it's always in my pocket.

"ia selalu di kantongku" ==>
"ia" is the subject of the sentence, referring to a fysical object, the important letter.
"dia" is not to be used here, because you're referring to a fysical object.
"ia" can be used here, although "itu" can also be used here in this context.

Another 3rd person singular form is "beliau".
This is a very formal form, seldom used in conversation.
This form can be reduplicated to "beliau-beliau" (3rd person plural).
This form is also seldom used in conversation.
Nevertheless, I think it's good to know these forms exist.

"engkau", "kau" (2nd person singular) are also not mentioned in the Tips & Notes.
These forms are mostly used to address someone you're close with, or used in a poetic way.
I haven't seen these words in the lessons.
However, I think it's good to know that they exist.

That's all for now, thank you for reading.

Selamat belajar.

August 24, 2018


Amazing explanation! Thanks!

November 12, 2018

Thank you ! Very helpful

April 6, 2019
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