This one is also usable, but with slightly different order of words. Ne, ta hnědá bunda se nehodí k té šedé sukni
No, you cannot translate "a jacket" as "ta bunda". That is simply wrong.
TA hnědá bunda would refer to a particular ("the / that") brown jacket, while the original sentence does not.
Could you say "Ne, hnědá bunda se nehodí k té šedé bunda."?
No, the "k" preposition requires dative. That's why we have "sukni" above. So it would have been "k té šedé bundě" (with that gray jacket).
Oops! Sorry, that was a typo. The second bundě should have been “sukni”. I was wondering about the placement of “nehodí” in the middle of the sentence esther than at the end - “...hnědá bunda se nehodì k tě šedé sukni”.
Yes, you can. I will add it.