-an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum
-an suffix is used to create nouns (from verbs, adjectives, nouns, etc...)
The noun has the meaning related to the base word.
-an attached to verbs: (verb) + (an) = (noun)
minum = to drink
minuman = drinks
makan = to eat
makanan = food
tulis = to write
tulisan = the writing, the handwriting
lukis = to paint
lukisan = painting
gambar = to draw
gambaran = a drawing
-an attached to adjectives: (adjective) + (an) = (noun)
manis = sweet
manisan = sweets, candy
kotor = dirty
kotoran = garbage
-an attached to nouns: (noun) + (an) = (noun)
tari = dance (noun)
tarian = type of dance
dagang = trade (noun)
dagangan = merchandise
-an attached to reduplicated noun :
buah = fruit
buah-buahan = all kinds of fruits
bunga = flower
bunga-bungaan = all kinds of flowers
-an suffix can also be used in combination with other prefixes to create nouns.
pe-an, creates nouns.
ke-an, creates nouns.
These are my notes on this subject.
Questions ? Remarks ? Adjustments ? Please leave a comment.
Thank you for reading.
-an suffix with reduplicated bases are used frequently.
They can also produce other words than nouns.
mudah (adjective) = easy
mudah-mudahan (adverb) = hopefully
besar (adjective) = big, large
besar-besaran (adjective) = on a large scale, grandiose
habis (verb) = finished, exhausted, completed
habis-habisan (adverb) = exhaustively, completely, all-out
untung (noun) = luck, profit
untung-untung (adverb) = maybe, if you're lucky
untung-untungan (adjective) = relying on luck
terus (verb) = to continue
terus-terusan (adverb) = continuously
terang (adjective) = clear, bright
terang-terangan (verb) = to be frank, to be honest
terang-terangan (verb) = berterang-terang (verb) = berterus-terang (verb)
(These verbs are synonyms)
Something I picked up from my wife; reduplicated nouns with the -an suffix often can translate as "fake" or "toy" things - such as rumah-rumahan would be a toy house (dolls house).