-an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum
-an suffix is used to create nouns (from verbs, adjectives, nouns, etc...)
The noun has the meaning related to the base word.
-an attached to verbs: (verb) + (an) = (noun)
minum = to drink
minuman = drinks
makan = to eat
makanan = food
tulis = to write
tulisan = the writing, the handwriting
lukis = to paint
lukisan = painting
gambar = to draw
gambaran = a drawing
-an attached to adjectives: (adjective) + (an) = (noun)
manis = sweet
manisan = sweets, candy
kotor = dirty
kotoran = garbage
-an attached to nouns: (noun) + (an) = (noun)
tari = dance (noun)
tarian = type of dance
dagang = trade (noun)
dagangan = merchandise
-an attached to reduplicated noun :
buah = fruit
buah-buahan = all kinds of fruits
bunga = flower
bunga-bungaan = all kinds of flowers
-an suffix can also be used in combination with other prefixes to create nouns.
pe-an, creates nouns.
ke-an, creates nouns.
These are my notes on this subject.
Questions ? Remarks ? Adjustments ? Please leave a comment.
Thank you for reading.
-an suffix with reduplicated bases are used frequently.
They can also produce other words than nouns.
mudah (adjective) = easy
mudah-mudahan (adverb) = hopefully
besar (adjective) = big, large
besar-besaran (adjective) = on a large scale, grandiose
habis (verb) = finished, exhausted, completed
habis-habisan (adverb) = exhaustively, completely, all-out
untung (noun) = luck, profit
untung-untung (adverb) = maybe, if you're lucky
untung-untungan (adjective) = relying on luck
terus (verb) = to continue
terus-terusan (adverb) = continuously
terang (adjective) = clear, bright
terang-terangan (verb) = to be frank, to be honest
terang-terangan (verb) = berterang-terang (verb) = berterus-terang (verb)
(These verbs are synonyms)
It would be nice to see an article written on what the grammatical meaning/class is when a root word takes both pe- and -an. If pe- is a AGENT-making morpheme (i.e. person who does X) and -an is a nominalizer (i.e. makes a noun out of the root word), then what does using both of them together do?
From what I've been able to observe, it makes a noun, but what kind of noun? My first guess is both of these together with a root create an abstract concept, but I'm not sure.
Also, what's the difference between /pe-/ and /per-/?
That's an excellent question. I asked my wife (native speaker), and she couldn't give a definitive answer; it seems it can go a few different ways depending on the word they modify.
From the examples she gave, however, the most common type do seem to be a more abstract noun, something like "the thing it relates to when the verb-er verbs"
eg pe+ to build = builder/developer, and +an: what does the developer build? - a development
pe+ walk/road (jalan) = walker; and +an: what does the walker go on? - a journey.