"Who dares open the door?"
Translation:Siapa yang berani membuka pintu itu?
So, just to clarify, siapa cannot be the subject of a verb, but rather must be linked to it by yang, right?
Yes, that's right.
I believe that the other sentence was a passive clause, where 'yang' is inserted to change the subject of the sentence.
This sentence doesn't use a passive verb, but it works the same way with active verbs.
Siapa yang menutup jendela itu ?
Siapa yang menulis buku itu?
Siapa yang menghabiskan kue itu ?
Siapa yang bersepeda ke sekolah ?
The above sentences can work without 'yang', but It sounds strange without it.
My grammar book doesn't specifically mention this structure with active verbs, so I have to rely on my Indo-gut-feeling.
Yes, I know, it's not really scientific.
My personal preference is to use 'yang' in these sentences.
It's the same when there is no verb involved, like in the following sentences:
Siapa yang marah ?
Siapa yang sedih ?
Siapa yang gembira ?
I guess it can work without 'yang', but it sounds strange without it.
(Again, no mention of it in my grammar book).
Here are some examples where 'yang' is NOT used:
Siapa kamu ?
Siapa namamu ?
Siapa orang itu ?
Siapa nama orang itu ?
Siapa anak ini ?
These sentences don't have verbs.
'Siapa' is the subject in these non-verbal clauses.
'yang' is NOT used here.
There is also this structure where 'siapa' is part of a noun phrase.
'yang' is also NOT used here.
'Siapa' functions as a possessive in these sentences :
Anak siapa itu ?
Buku siapa ini ?
Mobil siapa itu ?
To summarize :
'Siapa' + 'yang' + [verb]
'Siapa' + 'yang' + [adjective]
'Siapa' + [noun]
[noun] + 'siapa'
There must be other structures as well, so if you see one, please mention it in the 'sentence discussion', so that we can have another look at it.
Great explanation. I also tend to use my gut feeling. I tend to use siapa when the English translation works simply with 'who is/are' and siapa yang when the translation allow for 'who is/was it who. In the above example, Who is it who dares to ... I have found this gut method seems to work fine. I also like your explanation.
My Indonesian is mostly self-taught despite my wife being Indonesian. We visit Indo often, but not long enough to be immersed in the language. My reason for gut feeling explanations is from teaching English I have found that few people really understand grammar but still speak quite well. If you understand grammar well, stick with it.
I am quite confident of my gut feeling for English grammar, but I have spoken it for a half century and taught it for a couple of decades. I can generally trust my gut feelings for French and Russian, but wouldn't even trust my gut feeling for Hungarian, though I have been reading it for half of my life. I agree with you that the use of "yang" is probably something one has to get a feel for, but that feeling is going to have to come from hearing or reading Indonesian for a rather long period (or some related Austronesian language, probably).
I'm afraid I'm going to have to go with the more rules-bound method, because "who dares to open the door" looks much more natural for me
Hahaha...yes, I was actually wondering about the English sentence.
'Who dares open the door'
'Who dares to open the door'
I think the Duolingo sentence is missing the word 'to'.
Or can you omit 'to' ?
It sounds strange/poetic/archaic.
Or is it simply wrong ? :-)