If to laugh is a passive verb here, is there an active verb with this -tawa root?
'Tini menertawakan Andi, karena dia pergi ke toko buku tanpa celana.'
'Tini laughs at Andi, because he goes to the bookstore without pants.'
'Andi menertawakan dirinya sendiri, karena dia lupa memakai celana.'
'Andi laughs at himself, because he forgot to wear pants.'
Thanks again. I guess the ter- here is not so much making this passive as intransitive (there is no object of the laughter).
Well, it is actually.
'tertawa' cannot have an object, that's why it's an intransitive verb.
'ter-' prefix as it is used here, is to indicate that the action (the laughter) happens in a sudden, unexpected, accidental way, beyond the control of the subject.
I don't know if a verb like this is called 'active' or 'passive'.
Since it's used in a passive mood sentence, I think I would qualify this as a passive verb.
The sentence structure is one of a "passive mood" or "subjective focus".
The subject is not the person performing the action.
The subject is the recipient, the one undergoing/experiencing the action of the verb (in an unexpected, uncontrolled, accidental way).
That is what makes this sentence a "passive mood".
I'm not sure if that automatically means that the verb itself is a passive verb.