A toilet is called a toilet in most English speaking countries. Avoiding using this word seems to be just a North American thing.
However, the real issue here is that the English word "toilet" isn't commonly used in Indonesia. "Kamar kecil" is the common usage.
I was very concerned when the exercise with the picture of a toilet refused to accept "kamar kecil". This needs to be corrected.
In normal conversation, English avoids the use of the word "toilet" except to refer to the receptacle which receives human urine and feces. A urinal is specifically for male urination.
The normally polite way to ask this question would be: "Is there a washroom?" or "Is there a restroom?" or if in a home, "Is there a bathroom?"
For the room in which we use this receptacle, some common euphemisms include:
-- WC (British -- originates from "water closet");
-- lavatory (specifically, a room which includes only a sink and toilet);
-- bathroom (specifically, a room, usually in a home, which includes a bath, sink and toilet; loosely, this may also mean a public lavatory with one or more toilets & sinks, especially in Canadian usage);
-- restroom (very common usage, often posted on signs in restaurants, bars, etc; a public place, not in the home, including one or more sinks and toilets); origin is obscure, because a "restroom" may have no chairs or other place to "rest". See also "powder room" below;
-- washroom (very common for public facilities that include one or more sinks and toilets) NOTE: "Washroom" is probably originates from a public place where one can wash hands. Washroom in this context has nothing to do with washing clothes -- that would be a laundry, or laundry room.
Special case: "powder room" For women only, a public place with one or more sinks and toilets; may include a rest area with mirrors for adjusting makeup (originates from old expression "to powder one's nose" -- ie, adjust makeup). Has connotations of the rich and exclusive, but can be loosely used for any female-only restroom, sometimes humourously or ironically.
This gives some idea of just how hard English speakers try to avoid using the explicit word "toilet" :-)
In polite conversation maybe. There are plenty of people in the UK who would use "toilet". Americans, however, do seem to have a strange aversion to the word...
I agree... Avoiding the word toilet is an American thing. I think both toilet and restroom should definitely be valid translations.
I'm British and the only time I use something other than 'toilet' is when I'm talking in my second language, Norwegian. There I say 'toalett'. 'Bathroom' is used too, but 'toilet' is actually the most common word for it that I've heard. I've never heard anyone other than a single American say 'restroom'. And I've never heard anyone say WC either. And 'powder room' may have been used 50 years ago... but not now.