"Peter's mother is not happy."
Translation:पीटर की माँ ख़ुश नहीं हैं।
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The dot is called a 'nuqta' and indicates that the 'kh' sound in ख़ुश is not the usual Hindi ख sound but one borrowed from Persian/Arabic. It is to be pronounced like the 'ch' in Scottish 'loch' (as in the Loch Ness monster).
That said, note that many native speakers pronounce it as ख regardless. Even in writing, the dot is often dropped.
Why is the honorific 'हैं' being used together with the non-honorific 'की' for 'मॉं' instead of 'पीटर के मॉं'? Isn't hat inconsistent or have I misunderstood something?
You would use की because it refers to a female noun(मॉं). Even when you use the respectful form where मॉं is treated as plural, it would still remain a female noun. Compare with पीटर की बहनें खुश नहीं हैं।(Peter's sisters are not happy).
के is used for plural and male(or mixed) nouns. For example, 'Peter's father is not happy' would be पीटर के पिता खुश नहीं हैं।
के (well, masculine-plural form) is used as an honorific in Punjabi. I wonder if some dialects or speakers of Hindi do the same. It seems plausible since "Punjabi" shades off into Khari Boli "Hindi" of Delhi, and many Urdu speakers of Pakistan were migrants to Punjab. I wonder if PrajitDhar has some experience with this sort of usage.
nahin comes before the verb, in the standard word order.
It would help to know where you saw nahin before an adjective.
Possibly, the adjective is linked to a verb in a phrase, like garam-karna (warm-do, "to warm, to make warm") and someone treated it all as one big "verb phrase", and stuck nahin before it.
Other possibility is a switch in word order for emphasis.
But if you want a rule, it's that nahin comes before a verb.
You can use 'sukhi' - पीटर की माँ सुखी नहीं हैं।
Note that 'sukhi' is considered a slightly 'formal' word since it's a direct borrowing from Sanskrit. Also, it has connotations of long-term happiness as opposed to transient happiness.
'Sukh' is the noun meaning 'happiness'.