"I like white shoes."
Translation:Ich mag weiße Schuhe.
Give this a thorough read.
Unfortunately, you can't really explain this without a declination table. The information you seem to be missing is the case "weiße Schuhe" is in. "mögen" always takes the accusative case. Using the following information you can look up the appropriate ending.
That's the hard part. All you need to do now is add the ending (-e) to the base form (weiß).