"Do not take the book from me."
Translation:मुझसे किताब मत लो ।
I can try. "Take the book from him" would mean that you transfer possession of the book from him to yourself, with or without his permission.
So, the sentence in this question, "do not take the book from me," means that someone wants to (or is attempting to) remove the book from your possession. There is a strong implication that you want to keep the book, since you are telling them not to do so.
Sorry if that's confusing. I had a hard time trying to describe it without using "take".
It's a good example sentence in English. It sounds natural, except that I think most people would use the contraction "don't" instead of "do not" in most situations. Using "do not" adds more emphasis and makes it sound more serious. At least where I'm from; I don't know if that's a regional thing.
Also, if you don't mind, here's a small correction to your post. You should say "explain TO me" rather than "explain me". I don't know the reason for that one, but it sounds unnatural without the "to".