https://www.duolingo.com/Helenparle

Topic “prepositions” disappeared from the French course

Hi! After a new update some days ago, the topic “prepositions” just disappeared from the French course! What shall I do? Please, help!

9/30/2018, 6:55:06 PM

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Thomas.Heiss
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Indeed, Prepositions 1-3 skills have been eliminated in your tree4: https://www.duome.eu/Helenparle/progress :(

We have seen it previously on the newer EN-SP tree that dedicated "grammar skills" have been deleted but got incorporated into several new "vocabulary skills" for practice.

Thankfully I still have the French tree3 and I got all three skills, where both 1+2 have (html formatted) "tips and notes" available on the web portal.

I think it is time to create a PDF from all the helpful contributor (html) "tips and notes" and put it somewhere online for reference.

The discussion forum software unfortunately only has limited formatting abilities (I tried my best, I have no idea about the row/column tables):

Prepositions 1

<pre>au · aux · d' · dans · de · pour · à · · · 7 words </pre>

French prepositions can be difficult because their meanings and uses don't always line up to what you would expect in English.

De and À

The most common French prepositions are de ("of"/"from") and à ("to"/"at"). These prepositions can be used in many ways. For instance, they may indicate movement or location.

  • Nous allons à Paris. — We are going to Paris.
  • Il vient de Bordeaux. — He is coming from Bordeaux.
  • Je suis au restaurant. — I am at the restaurant.

Notice au above. De and à must contract with definite articles whenever they are adjacent.

Definite Article De À le du au la de la à la les des aux

If the contraction is followed by a vowel sound, du and de la both become de l' and au and à la both become à l'. This change occurs for euphony only; the nouns do not change genders because of it.

  • Tu parles à l'enfant. (Not au) — You are speaking to the child.
  • La Maison de l'Ours — The House of the Bear
  • Les copies des livres. — The copies of the books.
  • Le repas du chien. — The dog's meal. (The meal of the dog.)

De may be found in numerous fixed expressions, especially in adverbs of quantity like beaucoup de ("a lot of").

  • Nous avons beaucoup de pommes. — We have a lot of apples.
  • Rémy a beaucoup d'amis. — Remy has a lot of friends.

Adding de or à to the end of certain verbs can change their meanings.

  • Penser ("to think"): Je pense que c'est un homme. — I think that he is a man.
  • Penser à ("to think about"): Elle pense à son chien. — She's thinking about her dog.
  • Penser de ("to have an opinion about"): Que pensez-vous de ce repas ? — What do you think of this meal?

Using Articles After De

Most articles can be used immediately after expressions and verbs ending in de, but they must follow contraction and elision rules.

  • Elle parle beaucoup des (de + les) pâtes. — She speaks a lot about the pasta.
  • Que pensez-vous de la voiture ? — What do you think of the car?
  • Il a besoin d'un chien. — He needs a dog.

However, no article that already contains de may follow an expression, negative term, or verb ending in de. This includes the partitives du and de la and the indefinite des. In this situation, the article is removed so that only the naked de remains.

  • Elle mange beaucoup de frites. (Not de des) — She eats a lot of fries.
  • Je n'ai pas de pain. (Not de du) — I do not have (any) bread.
  • Il a besoin d'argent (Not de de l') — He needs (some) money.

Des Before Adjectives

When des appears immediately before an adjective, it changes to de. This only occurs with BANGS adjectives, which come before the noun.

  • Vous êtes de jeunes garçons. — You are young boys.
  • Elle a de petits chiens. — She has small dogs.

Prepositions 2

Temporal Prepositions

Choosing a preposition for time depends on the situation, but multiple choices may be appropriate. Durations

Pendant and durant are interchangeable and mean "during" or "for". These are versatile and can be used for most expressions of duration.

  • Pendant l'été, il fait chaud. — During the summer, it is hot.
  • Je veux dormir pendant une semaine ! — I want to sleep for a week!
  • Elles peuvent rester durant un jour. — They can stay for a day.
  • Chaque matin, je cours pendant une heure. — Every morning, I run for an hour.

Depuis ("since" or "for") can be used for things that are still happening, and it's usually followed by a start date or a duration. It's tricky because a French present tense verb with depuis often translates to an English present perfect tense verb.

  • Il pleut depuis hier. — It has been raining since yesterday.
  • Je te connais depuis deux ans. — I have known you for two years.

En ("in") indicates the length of time an action requires for completion and can be used with any tense.

  • Je peux le finir en deux heures. — I can finish it in two hours.
  • Elle va lire le livre en une heure. — She is going to read the book in an hour.

Pour ("for") is the most limited choice and is only used with aller or partir for future events.

  • Il est en vacances pour une semaine. – He is on vacation for a week.
  • Je vais chez moi pour la nuit. — I am going home for the night.

References

Use à to pinpoint exactly what time of day an event begins or to give the endpoint of a time range in conjunction with de.

  • Le repas commence à midi. — The meal begins at noon.
  • La boutique est ouverte de 8.00 à 17.00. — The boutique is open from 8 to 5.

En can also indicate that an action took place in a particular month, season, or year. The exception is spring, which requires au.

  • Je vais à Paris en avril. — I am going to Paris in April.
  • Je commence à bronzer en douceur en été. — I begin to gently sunbathe in summer.
  • Il va toujours chez lui au printemps. — He always goes home in spring.

Dans also means "in", but it gives the amount of time before an action will take place.

  • Elle va revenir dans 15 minutes. — She is going to return in 15 minutes.
  • Je vais t'appeler dans une demi-heure. — I'm going to call you in half an hour.

However, to give the amount of time needed to perform an action, en will be used.

  • Je peux faire ceci en une heure. — I can do this in/within one hour.
  • Elle pouvait résoudre ce problème en 10 minutes — She was able to solve this problem in 10 minutes.

Puzzling Prepositions

Chez can be combined with a pronoun or noun to refer to someone's home or workplace.

  • Je vais chez le dentiste. — I am going to the dentist's.
  • Elle est chez Kristy. — She's at Kristy's house.

Entre means "between", both literally and figuratively.

  • Il est entre deux fougères. — He is between two ferns.
  • Je te le dis, mais c'est entre nous. — I can tell you, but it's between us.

Parmi means "among" and indicates that something is part of a larger group of assorted people, animals, or things.

  • Des lions sont parmi les animaux du zoo. — Lions are among the zoo animals.
  • Le chat dort parmi les chiens. — The cat sleeps among the dogs.

However, if the larger group is uniform in some specific way, entre can also mean "among".

  • Ici, nous sommes entre femmes. — Here, we are among women.
  • Nous pouvons parler librement entre collègues. — We can speak freely among colleagues.

There are some situations where both entre and parmi are acceptable.

  • Il choisit entre/parmi les options. — He chooses between the options.

Devant and avant both mean "before", but devant is spatial while avant is temporal.

  • Je suis devant vous. — I stand before you.
  • Il mange avant nous. — He eats before us.

Peu

Using the word peu ("few"/"little") can be surprisingly complicated. By itself, peu is usually an adverb that diminishes what it modifies and is generally translated using "not very/much/well".

  • Elle parle peu. — She doesn't talk much.
  • Il est peu probable. — It is not very likely.
  • Je vous connais peu. — I don't know you well.
  • Ce phénomène est peu fréquent. – This phenomenon is infrequent.

peu après — not long after

Appending de creates an adverb of quantity that modifies nouns.

  • Peu de femmes disent ça. — Few women say that.
  • Peu d'eau sur la Terre est potable. — Little of the water on Earth is drinkable.

However, peu can also be a noun, especially when preceded by an article.

  • Elle parle un peu de français. — She speaks a bit of French.
  • Tu veux manger un peu de fraises ? — Do you want to eat a few strawberries?
  • Oui, j'en veux un peu. — Yes, I want a few. (Or "a little".)

Prepositions 3

<pre>afin de · assez de · au milieu de · au-dessus de · auprès de · autant de · autour de · beaucoup de · d'après · devant · en bas de · en dehors de · en haut de · en train de · en-dessous de · grâce à · hors de · jusqu' · jusqu'à · jusque · loin de · moins de · plein de · plus de · près de · à cause de · à côté de · à travers · · · 28 words </pre>

no further given notes

10/1/2018, 9:17:50 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/Thomas.Heiss
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I think it would be good if you moved this topic to the French(English) sub-forum as it is not related technically.

For the subject I would like to suggest:

Skills "Prepositions 1-3" disappeared from the French course (staff tree4): Find the missing html notes from tree3 here

10/1/2018, 9:21:37 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/Thomas.Heiss
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I think I may have found it - for your tree4 - in the (offical) extended user profile:

Preposições: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/fr/Prepositions

  • url_title: "Prepositions"
  • title/name: "Preposições" (on your Duome progress page: https://www.duome.eu/Helenparle/progress)
  • short: "Prep." (naming for the Duolingo "Home" page)
  • explanation : NULL (html formatted tips and notes)
10/1/2018, 1:31:59 PM
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