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It means that you are talking about that object for example Ich habe einen Apfel means that you have an apple. Think it like pointing to the apple and saying "ich habe".
In the previous question we had "Ich habe ein Pferd" and in this question "Wir haben einen Hund", why these two differ?
Basically because of the gender of the nouns they're attached to; a good rule of thumb for indefinite articles is that, in the accusative case, only those who are attached to masculine nouns change - from "ein" to "einen".
Therefore, ein Hund (masc.) - einen Hund; but ein Pferd (neut.) - ein Pferd
Pferd is neuter, and neuter nouns are ein in both nominative and accusative cases. Hund is masculine, and masculine accusative nouns take einen/den.
Hound is a type of dog. Hund is literally the word "dog." So you wouldn't want to translate it as a type or breed of dog.
I believe the etymology of English "hound" comes from the German "Hund" anyways, which is what's so fun about etymology
Three genders; four cases. The articles in German indicate all of these.
Really struggle with -akk.
I heard eine, not einen. Which I guess eine is wrong because that would imply dog is feminine. Regardless, I know its supposed to be akkusativ, but how do I remind myself of this rule?
Look up German articles and cases. There are many charts online showing when to use which one.
No. In English, "have" is not used in the continuous aspect when it means "own, possess".
"We are having" is used to mean "we are eating", for example, "We are having chicken today".