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yes and no. Vowel lengths are dependent on 'okina and kahakō. The kahakō (the line above a vowel) elongates the vowel. But there are also various rules on which vowel is annunciated longer if there are two kahakō in a single word. In general though, you donʻt want to elongate a vowel just to do it. For example "aloha" is "uh-lo-ha" not "aaaah-loooo-haaaa." Everyone will be able to instantly tell if youʻre local or not based on how you annunciate. So err on the side of not elongating vowels if you really donʻt know (or just ask...)
If Aloha kāua is 'hello you and I' and 'Aloha kākou' is hello everyone, can I infer that kākou is actually inclusive plural we?
Example of what I mean, kāua means we when there are two people and 'you' are one of them, kākou means we when there are three or more people and 'you' are one of them.
Perhaps I'm wrong, and I shouldn't assume, but if I'm right I don't think 'everyone' is a good translation in that case, it works with the context but only because you include yourself when you say 'aloha'.
From my understanding that is correct. However there are also "exclusive" first person plurals (the speaker and others, but not the person bring spoken too). So it's not because Aloha starts with yourself, but rather because "kākou" includes yourself. The understanding I got from the statement about Aloha always starting with yourself is that you should only use pronouns that includes yourself and your listener with Aloha. But it's the use of that first person multiple inclusive that makes it "everyone". Though I could be wrong.
Aloha mai kākou means "aloha everyone including myself" whereas aloha mākou means "aloha everyone else including me except you the person Iʻm directly speaking to (this should really never be used...at least I never have used it or come across a situation where I would), "aloha ʻoukou means "hello you all but not me" (I use this secondary--aloha mai kākou is more common) and aloha lākou would be "hello to everyone except me and the person iʻm speaking to" (again you prob wonʻt use this.) but my point is, there are a lot of different pronouns and what you use depends on who youʻre speaking to mostly, and whether you include yourself or not. Lots of different rules. If you donʻt know what to use correctly, just say "aloha."
someone said itʻs not used in common greetings...but it is. Itʻs common to say "aloha e ka ʻohana Wilson" for example, or "aloha e name of person youʻre speaking to" the formal way to say "aloha kākou" would be "aloha mai kākou" because kākou includes self, whereas when you use "e" itʻs referencing "other," not typically inclusive of self.