"लोग बिस्तर पर सो रहे हैं।"
Translation:The people are sleeping on the bed.
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There are two ways to interpret बिस्तर in this sentence.
First is if we are talking about one bed. In which case the translation given would be correct. However, to make it clear that this is the case one can use इस / उस / एक बिस्तर.
Another interpretation is that it refers to bed in general without any reference to any particular bed. In such a case you can say, "[The] People are sleeping on-bed." (Similar to in-flight)
If you had to specifically say, "People are sleeping on the beds." you would have to use the plural बिस्तरों.
A Hindi sentence in the usual word order (Subject-object-verb) may be translated into as SVO in English. So, लोग बिस्तर पर सो रहे हैं would be 'People are sleeping on the bed'.
The word order is changed from the usual order to add some kind of nuance to the meaning. Here, for instance, moving the subject लोग to a later position changes the emphasis in a similar way that the 'There are' construction does in English. So, बिस्तर पर लोग सो रहे हैं is 'There are people sleeping on the bed'.
The subject of the sentence लोग बिस्तर पर सो रहे हैं/'The people are sleeping on the bed' is लोग/'The people'. It answers the question 'Who is sleeping on the bed?'.
On the other hand, the subject of the sentence 'The people on the bed are sleeping' is 'The people on the bed'. So, it is the answer to the question 'Who is sleeping?'.
It would be translated into Hindi as either बिस्तर के ऊपर के लोग सो रहे हैं or जो लोग बिस्तर पे हैं, वे सो रहे हैं (literally, 'The people who are on the bed are sleeping').
The correct translation for 'The people have been sleeping on the bed' is 'लोग बिस्तर पर सोते रहे हैं।
However, you're right that Hindi often substitutes the present continuous (सो रहे हैं) in place of the present perfect continuous (सोते रहे हैं), especially when a reference time is included (i.e, when there is no room for ambiguity). For example, it is more common to say लोग पिछले साल से बिस्तर पर सो रहे हैं। instead of लोग पिछले साल से बिस्तर पर सोते रहे हैं। for 'The people have been sleeping on the bed since last year' because the phrase 'पिछले साल से' makes it clear what we mean.