And just an FYI, Ka'iulani is traditionally a female name, and thus with the context, the best response is Her name is... instead of His name is ... in this case.
Thank you for your comments! I am finding them (all) very helpful. I was just wondering... are Ka'iulani, Kaleo, Kawiki, and Keoki fairly common traditional names?
They are common names except Ka‘iulani. That is a good name as well, but I do not know many with that name. It is the name of a princess from over 100 years ago.
This is an 'O equational sentence. "Ka'iulani is her name." should be an alternate correct answer.
What does "o" Ka'iulani mean. What is its function. And "e" before a name as well.
The e is easier to explain - it is used before people's names when you address them directly, such as in English "Hey (name)".
The 'o / 'O is used in two different places. In this case, it starts a sentence without a verb. It is used before definite nouns (the, these, those, my etc. + a noun) or a proper noun like the name of a person or a place. If it is an indefinite noun (a, some) then He is used instead of 'O. The word 'O has no English translation.
In addition to the solid info that Kelii provided 'O at the beginning of the sentence signals a particular sentence type ('Aike 'O) an equational sentence. That means the two things mentioned (the po'o/head and the piko/body) are equal. So you can reverse the two items and says the same thing: 'O Ka'iulani kona inoa (Ka'iulani is her name) or Kona inoa 'o Ka'iulani (Her name is Ka'iulani).