"Hilo is humid."
Translation:Ikiiki ʻo Hilo.
You mainly use ʻo in front of a name! Hilo is a place, so you would put the ʻokina in front of the o to state that you are naming something/someone. Sometimes o (without the ʻokina) can be translated as “of”, depending on the sentence structure. I’m sure it will be more obvious as they add more lessons! :~)
When I typed "ʻŌmalumalu o Līhuʻe." I was marked incorrect because I needed an ʻokina before Līhuʻe as it is a proper noun. However, when I typed "Pehea ke anilā ʻo Hilo i kēia lā?" I was also marked incorrect because there should not be an ʻokina before Hilo. This makes no sense. Iʻm trying to recall in the back of my brain what the rule was from my high school classes in Hawaiian (22-20 years ago) and when I took it again during graduate school (15 years ago). Anyone have any suggestions?
Ask yourself if the proper noun is the actual subject or if it is being used to specify the owner or location of something.
In, "‘Ōmalumalu ‘o Lihu‘e," you use the proper noun marker ‘o because the proper noun is the subject of the sentence. There is no translation into English because it's just a grammatical marker.
In, "Pehea ka anilā o Hilo," the actual subject is "ka anilā" and "o Hilo" is just specifying which "anilā" we're talking about. This o can be translated into English as "of". "Ka anilā o Hilo" = "The weather of Hilo"
A subject marker? Do you mean "'o"? It's not really a subject marker, it is probably better to think of it as a proper noun marker. It's put in front of the names of people and places, but not in front of standard nouns (which should have another determiner instead, like "ka"). This is very similar to how in English we use articles in front of standard nouns and don't use them in front of proper nouns: The city is humid. Hilo is humid. But in Hawaiian you always have a determiner on the noun, so "'o" fulfills that purpose on proper nouns.
The reason we only see the "'o" on subjects is that other particles are used when the proper noun plays a different role in the sentence and they take the place of the determiner on the proper nouns, but no particle is used to mark the subject, so since you don't have either a particle or a determiner, you have to use the "'o" determiner for proper nouns when they are the subject.
The other two places where "'o" is used is before the pronoun "ia" ("he/she/it" - but not other pronouns) and before the question word "wai" ("who?").
Exactly. For "wow, Kona is humid" I was marked CORRECT for "Hū ikiiki 'o Hilo" (a "no-article (ka) - 'o" combination), although the "also correct" suggestion was "Hū ka ikiiki o Hilo" (a "ka - o" combination)
For "Hilo is humid," "Ikiiki 'o Hilo" (a "no-article (ka) - 'o" combination) is the correct answer but "Ka ikiiki o Hilo" (a "ka - o" combination) was marked wrong. I see no difference from the Kona example, so I flagged my answer as "should be correct." IF I'M WRONG, PLEASE EXPLAIN (sorry, not shouting, just looking for help!)