"Aamir's father has gone to America."
Translation:आमिर के पिता अमेरिका गये हैं ।
You're not being penalized per se for the spelling variation.
Duolingo seems to treat all spelling variations as typos if two conditions are met:
- The variation is minor enough. I.e. single letter added, single letter missing, single letter different, two consecutive letters reversed.
- The resulting spelling doesn't happen to match any of the words that Duolingo knows.
Amir must be a word in one of the other languages that Duolingo teaches, and you're accidentally matching it. So it thinks you've correctly spelled an incorrect word.
I was waiting for a question that expected "Aamir" in the English answer. I just got it and tried an experiment. I deliberately misspelled it as "Aamri". It accepted my answer and called it a "typo".
गये (without हैं) means went, so it means the father has possibly returned from America. गये हैं means has gone and that the father has not returned, since the father has gone and has not returned हैं is necessary.
I am actually not 100% sure if this is how English works, because you can say "He went to the pharmacy" if someone has left in the past and is still gone as well.
But anyway on Duolingo the strategy of differentiating "went" versus "has gone" in this manner leads to the right answers.
The important thing to remember is that the present perfect is related to the present in some way. Whereas, the past simple happened at a specific time in the past and is a finished action.