The name of the color is technically काला. काली is it's feminine form when used as an adjective.
But yes. The name of the goddess comes from the color and literally means 'the dark-complexioned one'.
Another aspect of the Hindu mother goddess is called गौरी whose name comes from the Sanskrit word for 'white'. The Hindi word गोरा (fair/white) and it's feminine form गोरी also come from the same root.