"She is happy."
Translation:Hauʻoli ʻo ia.
28 CommentsThis discussion is locked.
I take it that " 'o ia" means she. What is "he"? Google translate shows the only difference between he and she is the capitalization of the o (" 'O ia" for he, and " 'o ia" for she). What's the difference in pronunciation? Is it inflection, syllabic inflection, or something else? Just curious. Thanks in advance.
Hawaiian doesn't have separate pronouns for men and women. 'O ia can refer to a man or a woman regardless of whether the o is capitalized or not and it is pronounced the same in all cases. If you want to be specific who you are talking about, use their name. If you think I already know who you are talking about, then use 'o ia no matter who it is.
I believe there may be some uses of ia without ‘o, but we haven't learned them yet. ‘O is a particle that marks words, so you have to use it with the word your marking. Ia is the actual pronoun, and is usually marked with ‘o when being used as the subject in a sentence. Proper names must also be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject.
You're right, jdmcowan, that there are other uses of ia without ʻo. For example, when ia (he/she/it) is the direct object in a sentence, then it is preceded by "iā", a direct object marker used when the object is a pronoun or a name. You'll see a lot more of it's counterpart object marker "i" (used for "common nouns") in the course.
As an example of "iā ia", you might say something like "E kelepona aku iā ia" -> "Call him/her", where him/her is the object of the sentence. "Kelepona ʻo ia", on the other hand, would be interpreted as "She/he calls", where she/he is the subject of the sentence.
Only when it follows another word that ends in a vowel. I believe (though I could be mistaken) that a vowel at the beginning of a sentence is said with a closed glottis whether there is an ‘okina or not. However when going from one vowel to another (even in separate words) one should glide from one vowel to the next unless there is an ‘okina in which case one should close the glottis between the vowel sounds.
'O ('okina o) is a particle marking the subject and is used in front of a person's name, sometimes a place name (eg. Waikīkī, Maui, Hale'iwa, etc.) or in front of ia ('o ia) for he, she or it. Just plain o is the preposition of. Check out wehewehe.org (online Hawaiian Dictionary) for more explanations.
Just wanted to add to this. It is possible to use the pronoun ia without ʻo in front of it as the subject. Doing so suggests that the subject is already understood. For example, you might refer to someone by name in one sentence, and then use ia to refer to them again in a following sentence.
You can say something like "Hauʻoli ia", and I'll accept it for this exercise, but I would encourage early learners to use ʻo ia as the default for "he/she/it" until you have a better understanding of when it's best to use other options. We will be introducing some uses of ia later in the course, where there is a little more context to support understanding, so stay tuned!
It's similar to indonesian's "dia" (he/she but neutral).
Indonesians sometimes also use "ia" as a third person pronoun refering to a higher being/a respected person.
There are also a lot of words so far that are similar to indonesian
Because "hau'oli" is an adjective, not a noun.
In English we treat adjectives much like nouns. We say "it is cold" in the same way we say "it is metal". This is an equivalence sentence. The verb "to be" is used to equate two things. When it's two nouns the equivalence is clear: "The farmer is his father." When you think about it, it is a little odd that English uses the same sort of equivalence to say how something is described: "The farmer is happy." But that's how English adjectives work.
Hawaiian also has a way to create equivalence sentences. You can start with 'O and list two nouns to say those things are equivalent: ʻO ka mahiʻai kona makuakāne. But the same formula is NOT used for adjectives. Instead Hawaiian adjectives can act directly as verbs. So when we say "Hau'oli 'o ia", the literal word for word translation is more like, "She happies." But in Hawaiian, that is how you say "She is happy." It might be better to think of Hawaiian adjectives as being able to include the verb "to be" in their definitions: hau'oli = "to be happy" and then you don't need a connecting marker like the 'O at the beginning of those equivalence sentences.