"She is happy."
Translation:Hauʻoli ʻo ia.
I take it that " 'o ia" means she. What is "he"? Google translate shows the only difference between he and she is the capitalization of the o (" 'O ia" for he, and " 'o ia" for she). What's the difference in pronunciation? Is it inflection, syllabic inflection, or something else? Just curious. Thanks in advance.
Hawaiian doesn't have separate pronouns for men and women. 'O ia can refer to a man or a woman regardless of whether the o is capitalized or not and it is pronounced the same in all cases. If you want to be specific who you are talking about, use their name. If you think I already know who you are talking about, then use 'o ia no matter who it is.
Do you have to use "'o" and "ia" together, or can you just use one of them?
I believe there may be some users of ia without ‘o, but we haven't learned them yet. ‘O is a particle that marks words, so you have to use it with the word your marking. Ia is the actual problem, and must always be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject in a sentence. Proper names must also be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject.
Only when it follows another word that ends in a vowel. I believe (though I could be mistaken) that a vowel at the beginning of a sentence is said with a closed glottis whether there is an ‘okina or not. However when going from one vowel to another (even in separate words) one should glide from one vowel to the next unless there is an ‘okina in which case one should close the glottis between the vowel sounds.
'O ('okina o) is a particle marking the subject and is used in front of a person's name, sometimes a place name (eg. Waikīkī, Maui, Hale'iwa, etc.) or in front of ia ('o ia) for he, she or it. Just plain o is the preposition of. Check out wehewehe.org (online Hawaiian Dictionary) for more explanations.