"She is happy."
Translation:Hauʻoli ʻo ia.
In English you can switch the subject and the verb to indicate that it is a question: Is she happy? This is actually much more common in English than keeping the order the same and only changing your intonation. Since you can't indicate a question with this sort of reordering in Hawaiian, it is not the same as English.
I take it that " 'o ia" means she. What is "he"? Google translate shows the only difference between he and she is the capitalization of the o (" 'O ia" for he, and " 'o ia" for she). What's the difference in pronunciation? Is it inflection, syllabic inflection, or something else? Just curious. Thanks in advance.
Hawaiian doesn't have separate pronouns for men and women. 'O ia can refer to a man or a woman regardless of whether the o is capitalized or not and it is pronounced the same in all cases. If you want to be specific who you are talking about, use their name. If you think I already know who you are talking about, then use 'o ia no matter who it is.
I believe there may be some users of ia without ‘o, but we haven't learned them yet. ‘O is a particle that marks words, so you have to use it with the word your marking. Ia is the actual problem, and must always be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject in a sentence. Proper names must also be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject.
You're right, jdmcowan, that there are other uses of ia without ʻo. For example, when ia (he/she/it) is the direct object in a sentence, then it is preceded by "iā", a direct object marker used when the object is a pronoun or a name. You'll see a lot more of it's counterpart object marker "i" (used for "common nouns") in the course.
As an example of "iā ia", you might say something like "E kelepona aku iā ia" -> "Call him/her", where him/her is the object of the sentence. "Kelepona ʻo ia", on the other hand, would be interpreted as "She/he calls", where she/he is the subject of the sentence.
Only when it follows another word that ends in a vowel. I believe (though I could be mistaken) that a vowel at the beginning of a sentence is said with a closed glottis whether there is an ‘okina or not. However when going from one vowel to another (even in separate words) one should glide from one vowel to the next unless there is an ‘okina in which case one should close the glottis between the vowel sounds.
'O ('okina o) is a particle marking the subject and is used in front of a person's name, sometimes a place name (eg. Waikīkī, Maui, Hale'iwa, etc.) or in front of ia ('o ia) for he, she or it. Just plain o is the preposition of. Check out wehewehe.org (online Hawaiian Dictionary) for more explanations.
It's similar to indonesian's "dia" (he/she but neutral).
Indonesians sometimes also use "ia" as a third person pronoun refering to a higher being/a respected person.
There are also a lot of words so far that are similar to indonesian