"Das sind die letzten zwei Orangen."
Translation:These are the last two oranges.
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eine is the only number that inflects, in general. (Though some of the next few numbers have distinct genitive forms, e.g. er ist der Vater zweier Söhne "he is the father of two sons".)
Das sind die letzten blauen Orangen is correct -- both adjectives take weak inflection after the definite article die there.
Duolingo accepts both "these" and "those" for "das". Is that because Duo isn't particular, or do the Germans not distinguish between "these" and "those"?
Germans don't distinguish between "this/that" or "these/those" as strongly as English does.
Kind of like how English doesn't really distinguish between Turkish şu/o or Japanese sono/ano or Spanish ese/aquel -- we don't really do the "that/yon" distinction in modern English.
German just takes this relaxed attitude a little further :)
Dies is pretty much always just "this", but das can often be either "this" or "that" or even "yon". (Well, you can't use "yon" on Duolingo.)
If you listen carefully, you can hear the "s" (like in "snake") of "das" before the "s" (like in "cars") of "sind".
You're right: "Da sind die letzten zwei Orangen" is also a valid sentence, meaning "The last two oranges are over there." However, if this were the case, I think the speaker would most likely place greater emphasis on the word "da".