Korean Past Participles: WHAT ON EARTH IS GOING ON?
I have been so so confused with the particles and then, Korean intensifies this problem with the past participles (idk what they're actually called but they seem like participles).
받은 메세지 Sent message - Okay seems managable
내가 본 사람 The person (who) I saw - Getting a little harder
내 앞에 선 너 You standing in front of me - A very hard sentence
그건 내가 생각하던 게 아니야 That is not what I was thinking - WOAH.
Like, the tips and notes does not even explain this properly, especially with the 게 word/particle, I think they did not even mentioned it. If I am wrong, please do correct me and I hope you guys help me with my problem.
korean ranks as one of the hardest languages and the course is in beta, isnt very extensive. while it is a valuable resource the explanations arent very comprehensive. even if all the "notes" were completely filled with grammar points it STILL wouldn't be enough to cover everything by far so im afraid to say you are going to have to expand your studies past duolingo at some point.
with all that said, you should feel free to ask questions.
그것은 내가 생각하던 것이 아니야 "that is not what i was thinking"
게 is just a contraction of 것이 like 건 is a contraction of 것은
던/었던 are explained here
I see 게 is well explained in the above comment.
Regarding what you called participles (I don't know what they're called either!) you need to learn how Korean verbs change and how they modify nouns. Remember, the word order in Korean is always modifier + noun. For example, you wouldn't say 사람 예쁜. you say 예쁜 사람.
That being said, here's an example of how the verb 보다 (see/look at/watch/read/etc.) changes and modifies nouns.
* 내가 보다 (I see)
* 내가 본/봤던 (that I saw) → 내가 본 영화 (the movie I saw)
* 내가 보던 (that I was seeing) → 내가 보던 영화 (the movie that I was watching)
* 내가 볼 (that I will see) → 내가 볼 영화 (the movie I will see)
Same goes with 말하다 (speak/say) but this time, I will put '것(thing)' at the end.
* 내가 말하다 (I say)
* 내가 말한/말했던 것 (what I said) → 내가 말한 것은/건 잊어버려. (Forget what I said.)
* 내가 말하던 것 (what I was saying) → 내가 말하던 것이/게 그거야. (That's what I was saying.)
* 내가 말할 것 (what I will say) → 내가 말할 것은/건 여기 쓰여 있어. (What I will say is written here.)
Another important verb is 하고 싶다 (want to do). You can add any verbs in front of 싶다, but you should make sure it ends with '~고.'
* 내가 하고 싶다 (I want to ... )
* 내가 보고 싶은 사람 (the person I want to see)
* 내가 말하고 싶었던 것 (what I wanted to say)
And about the example sentences in your post, you might want to change the English translation a little bit so that you can understand them more easily.
* 받은 메세지 → The message that (someone) received → sent message
* 내 앞에 선 너 → You that is standing in front of me → You standing in front of me