"small" and "short" are not the same. They may be long but you still can't zip them; therefore they are small.
I am not a native English speaker but I thought "pants" and "trousers" are synonyms?
This is interesting. In Australia pants pretty much only mean long shorts. However we pretty much never use pants to refer to jeans or other clothing. Pretty much only long loose shorts.
I don't know which part of Australia you are from, but in Sydney people often use pants for trousers. Long shorts are long shorts.
In Standard British English, pants means underwear. It's like American 'panties'. They're not always synonymous.
Regardless of the difference between walking around in just your pants in London vs. New York City, die Hosen means outerwear:
Normalerweise die Hosen haben Taschen.
Are pants always plural as in Eng. And is there an equivalent in Ger. to 'a pair of pants"?
"Die Hose" can be used in the singular, unlike in English. So "Der Mann trägt eine Hose" meaning "The man wears pants." If you use the plural ("Hosen") it literally means multiple pairs of pants. But I have also heard that it's possible to use the plural when you just mean one pair pf pants, like in English. I'm not sure if there are any situations where one would be more correct than the other though. It seems slightly more rare to use the plural, but I don't know for sure. There's a pretty interesting discussion about it here: http://german.stackexchange.com/questions/3980/when-do-we-use-hose-like-a-plurale-tantum
Underpants?or knickers? Perhaps you mean what English speakers call trousers.
Why isn't klein declined? Also why do some verbsget accents in certain conjugations like trage, trägt?
- Klein isn't declined because it is a predicate adjective.
- The umlauts change the pronunciation of the vowel--and thus the word--so that in the spoken language one can tell that there is a change in conjugation. It's sort of a "that's just the way it is" situation. (Es ist halt so.)
Die Eule probably does accept trousers as a translation for die Hosen here.
This seems to be referring to many pairs of pants, since it's die hosen sind rather than das hose ist