"Temanku disuntik oleh perawat itu."
Translation:My friend was injected by that nurse.
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If you think about it, "the" kinda means something very similar to "that" in English. The difference is when we use "That" we're being very specific and putting emphasis on whatever "that" is. Indonesian doesn't have a "the", but there are still times when it needs to point to a specific thing but without putting strong emphasis on it. So in those cases, it might be more natural to translate "itu" as "the" rather than "that". If it's not clear from context (as in single duolingo sentence) I tend to find "the" makes for a more natural sounding sentence.
tldr: Yes, "perawat itu" can mean "the nurse" in this sentence.