har gået and er gået
can someone explain the use of har gået and er gået. . Why is har used for walked, yet er is used for gone and passed
"Har gået" describes a finished action that the subject performed in the past. "Er gået" describes a state that began with a past action but continue in the present. "Han har gået fra A til B": he has walked from A to B [in the past]. "Året er gået": [Now] the year is gone. "Strømmen er gået": [Now] the electricity is gone.
We use the same grammer with other verbs: "Frøen har sprunget": the frog has jumped; BUT "røret er sprunget": the pipe has bust. "Grisen har spist": the pig has eaten BUT "grisen er spist": the pig has been eaten.
I suppose English does the same thing in constructions like "He has drunk all the beer" vs. "He is drunk from all the beer".
Thanks baerghest. I appreciate the time you took to reply. . Han er gået for en time siden - he has left an hour ago - ER is used because the action started in the past and is not yet finished - and there is nothing specific being left. . Han har gået rundt om kvindens hus - the man has walked around to the woman's house - Har because the action is from A to B and is complete. . One more question about the word left. Normally it is forladt. Would this be used when something or someone is being left behind. Jeg har forladt mit hus allerede. Han har forladt dette land.
forladt kan be used for a thing or a person. The meaning strongly suggests "left behind", "abandoned", though it can also be used simply as "left".
Huset så øde og forladt ud. = The house looked desolate and abandoned.
Jeg har forladt mit job = I have left my job.