"When does he eat breakfast?"
Translation:Kapan dia sarapan?
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It can be used in both contexts, I'm quite sure. My experience over a decade traveling there is that they tend to use sarapan in both cases or just "makan?" to ask if eaten in the morning. I've rarely heard Indonesians themselves use "makan pagi." I believe that it's like how English-speakers use the word lunch as a noun and sometimes a verb. "Luncheon" used to be the noun but it has migrated to a more formal sense.
I've answered previously in this discussion that sarapan is more preferred, yet I have not explained why. Time to change that.
Yes, makan pagi and sarapan are synonymous. But sarapan refers exclusively to breakfast, while makan pagi refers to any meal you eat in the morning whether it's intended as breakfast or something else, like a morning snack. Makan pagi consists of two words, makan meaning eat, and pagi meaning morning. Based on the English translation, it only refers to breakfast, so use sarapan instead.
In Indonesian, there's no such thing as "makan makan pagi" (this applies to every time of the day, like siang [noon] and malam [night]).
So if you want to ask someone when had they eaten dinner, ask "Kapan dia makan malam?". Same goes with lunch (makan siang) and makan pagi.